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Messages - kumin

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In regards to zygotic seedlings, C-35 is approximately 15% zygotic. Carrizo and Troyer can be as low as 1-2 % zygotic. I have no experience with Carrizo - Troyer cold hardiness. C-35 performs best in uniformly cool winters (within limits). C-35 does not fare as well in areas prone to sudden freezes following warm periods during winter. The references I've seen consider the three to be similar in cold hardiness.

Temperate Fruit Discussion / Re: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in Poland?
« on: January 04, 2020, 08:41:16 PM »
Although well drained soil is best, persimmons have considerable tolerance to clay soil. Wet soil is tolerated better in cold temperatures than hot weather, as the need for soil oxygen is lower in winter. Sandy soil is fine as long as the soil has adequate fertility and moisture.

Temperate Fruit Discussion / Re: What varmint could this be?
« on: January 04, 2020, 08:28:55 PM »
Groundhogs are diurnal herbivores, skunks dig extensively for grubs. I believe skunks are fairly precise in their digging.

Mikkel, when I initially saw the 95% zygotic embryos for US 1282 , I was a bit skeptical there might be an error. However, I've just received conformation that it's correct. So if it's possible to obtain a clone and produce one's own parent seed trees, there is the potential of producing large numbers of zygotic F2 seedlings. 

Tables with rootstock seed germination, polyembryony, etc. characteristics. From University of Florida.

Citrus General Discussion / South African Citrus Educational Videos
« on: December 27, 2019, 12:21:15 PM »
A good deal of information as it relates to South African Citrus Propagation and Cultivation practices. From a commercial production perspective. A lot of material to digest.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: F2 citrange winter hardiness trial
« on: December 18, 2019, 02:42:46 PM »
Multiple layers of frost cover have been placed over the plants . Neither the white overwintering plastic, nor the frost cover have a dramatic effect used on their own. The exterior poly cover shields the interior from the wind allowing the frost cover to become more effective. Supposedly using the two in conjunction can have an 8-10 degree benefit. This is the first time I will be using either of them. In the event of unseasonably mild weather, I will remove the frost cover.

This protection may be a bit of pampering, but I'm eager to get to flowering and fruiting as quickly as possible.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: TaiTri vs 5* deciduousness and hardiness
« on: December 16, 2019, 03:47:14 PM »
By spring I should have some answers in regards to the cold hardiness of both 5* and TaiTri. Shorter winters would be desirable!

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Grafting successful or too early?
« on: December 15, 2019, 04:26:12 PM »
Congratulations! You have a successful graft. It still obviously needs protection until healing is complete, but looks good.

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Grafting successful or too early?
« on: December 15, 2019, 04:04:39 PM »
There is indeed callus formation. The graft isn't a failure until all buds are dead. Inactive buds can be stimulated to push if any are present. If this is the same graft with bud growth, it is a positive indication.

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Grafting successful or too early?
« on: December 15, 2019, 01:50:30 PM »
Enclosed bottles are a positive in regards to helping to maintain a humid environment. If the bottles also trap heat originating from the mat it can have a detrimental effect by forcing early top growth. Unrooted cuttings have a limited store of energy contained within them. If expended prematurely, the cutting will stunt, then die.

You might want to experiment with varying amounts of top exposure to determine the best balance for your situation.

Cuttings taken at certain times of the year will respond much better than others. Done indoors, this may translate to being at the best stage of maturation following a flush.

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Grafting successful or too early?
« on: December 15, 2019, 11:38:32 AM »
In reference to rooting cuttings, a common practice is to provide bottom heat while keeping the stem above the media cool. The idea is to promote callus formation in the lower part of the stem by elevating the temperature. The above ground parts of the stem are cooled by periodic evaporative mist or fog spray. The cooler top temperatures are intended to discourage top growth until roots have formed.

In regards to the early bud emergence on the scions, is there a chance the scions are at a warmer temperature than the roots?

In either case the energy available in the scion should not be expended by bud growth prior to healing of the graft union.

The more experimentation you are able to follow and evaluate what works, the more experience and knowledge you will be able to develop. Many persons budding and grafting develop personal favorite techniques based on what has worked for them in the past.

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Grafting successful or too early?
« on: December 15, 2019, 07:38:05 AM »
Agreeing with Bomand, the important indicator is the graft union itself, the development of callus, which should precede any scion bud growth. The formation of callus tissue and filling in any gaps within the new graft with callus determines the success or failure. Tight, secure "carpentry" is important in the graft. Also not trying to discourage, but promoting good grafting practice.
One concept I like concerning graftage, is that of cambium tissue "healing", similar to the natural process of bark wounds healing on tree trunks and branches. In fact, I believe it's this natural process that makes grafting and budding possible.

This photo is a different type of graft that shows the initial infilling of callus tissue.

Cold Hardy Citrus / TaiTri vs 5* deciduousness and hardiness
« on: December 13, 2019, 03:47:19 PM »
Is anyone familiar with both TiaTri citrandarin and 5* citrumelo in respect to their winter hardiness? The first indications I see are that TaiTri shows a bit of deciduousness while I see none in the 5* at this point.  Some of my segentrages show appreciable deciduous behavior, others don't. TaiTri also made less late growth. Which has shown better cold resistance?

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Help needed
« on: December 02, 2019, 10:45:32 AM »
Placing the insect on a black background might provide better contrast. A macro setting should be helpful, if possible.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Sacaton Citrumelo F2 seedlings
« on: November 30, 2019, 03:46:30 PM »
It certainly appears that the true identity and description of Sacaton (and Yuma?) is not resolved, at least in the literature. A large scale cold hardy F2 seedling segregation test with 100% nucellar seeds would be disastrous! This reminds me a bit of the Carrizo/Troyer citrange question. Are the 2 the same clone, or 2 very similar cultivars?

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Sacaton Citrumelo F2 seedlings
« on: November 30, 2019, 12:24:38 PM »
Such a high percentage of monofoliates indeed suggests the pollen parent (s) was/were monofoliates. Best of luck with your hybrids.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Frost Protection
« on: November 27, 2019, 04:09:56 AM »
Usirius, I agree with your concern for overheating with heat lamps. I previously had a small duck hatchery and used heat lamps to brood newly hatched ducklings. The proximity to the bulbs was critical and I discontinued their use due to the fire hazard. They can have a desiccating, even a roasting effect, if not used very carefully.

 If alive, it's dormant and would need to be forced in order to grow. Pruning back top growth should do the trick.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Frost Protection
« on: November 26, 2019, 05:29:18 AM »
In a very small enclosure as pictured, a very powerful heat source can overheat plants before the thermostat may react. This should not be a concern in an appropriately matched heater and enclosure. My concern was that the original poster may have an enclosure not much larger than the tree, in which case the tree could be vulnerable to scorching. In a larger enclosure this is much less of a concern.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Frost Protection
« on: November 25, 2019, 05:41:46 PM »
1500 Watts is likely serious overkill for a small enclosure. The wattage should not be higher than the equivalent wattage of a correctly sized lightbulb.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Frost Protection
« on: November 25, 2019, 03:30:01 PM »
The Farm Innovators Thermo Cube is a temperature controlled electrical outlet adapter.
This is model TC-3 available at Tractor Supply, as long as the amperage is not exceeded it should be fine.
    It operates with any 15 amp 120 volt electric heater or fan. Less than 15 amp heating device will not be a problem.
    It plugs directly into any standard outlet.
    It is thermostatically controlled and turns the power on and off automatically, according to the outside ambient air temperature.
    It converts a single outlet into a convenient double receptacles.
    It saves money by using power only when temperature requires.

One requirement is that the Thermo Cube is at the same temperature exposure as the plants. Within the enclosure is probably best so it can monitor the plant"s environment.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: F2 citrange winter hardiness trial
« on: November 25, 2019, 12:54:59 PM »
A number of seedlings and grafted specimens as they show leaves preparing to abscise for winter.

A seedling of either Meyer lemon, or Moro blood orange showing good tolerance to this point. No expectations of winter survival.

Ichangquat 6-7-2 seedling showing shoot damage - not deciduous (not expected to be).

TaiTri seedling not showing much damage, partially deciduous at this point.

5* Citrumelo showing minor tip damage, not deciduous at this point.

Segentrange # 58 monofoliate, not deciduous, showing a bit of tip damage (off photo). Original plant (in soil).

Segentrange #21 deciduous, showing little damage. On Poncirus rootstock.

Segentrange #001 deciduous (not last year), no damage. On Poncirus rootstock.

Segentrange # 010 deciduous, no damage. On Poncirus rootstock.

Segentrange # 011 deciduous, no damage, possibly
the hardiest specimen. On Poncirus rootstock.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: F2 citrange winter hardiness trial
« on: November 25, 2019, 12:15:40 PM »
The seeds were planted April 12 2018. They were germinated in a heated bed. Subsequently the seedlings were field transplanted in early June of 2018. They were 9- 10 months old at the time of maximum exposure to the winter low temperatures.
Some of these plants were grafted onto Poncirus rootstock during the summer, which resulted in some larger plants, but some of the original plants have good size. The soil planted trees are the originals, the potted plants are potted Poncirus rootstock, or F2 back-up Segentranges grafted on Poncirus rootstock.
To answer your question more directly, these plants will be 2 years old in April, 2020.

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