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Messages - Millet

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Citrus fruit have three periods of fruit drop.  Early fruit & flower drop, June drop, and preharvest drop. The number one reason for flower and fruit drop in citrus trees  is insufficient watering.   The largest drop of flowers & fruit is the early drop period which  occurs during the initial period of flowering and fruit set.  During the early drop period 87+ percent of the flowers and small fruitlets fall from the tree.  During the June drop period young, immature small citrus fruits about 1 inch or less  in diameter are abscised from the tree.  June drop is the tree's natural fruit thinning process related to the simultaneous demand by the fruits  for the available resources of the tree. There is a lower number of fruit drop during June drop period  than during the early drop period.  Preharvest drop  is the abscission of fruit of significant size which are ready, or nearly ready for harvest. .  Again the number of fruit that fall during preharvest drop is less than either early or June drop.

To reduce the dropping of fruit during the early drop period, the accepted procedure is a foliar spray application of low biuret urea, or potassium nitrate about 1.5 to 2 months prior to the date of expected tree bloom.  This reduces early drop  and  increase flower number and fruit yield.

Plant growth regulators such as Gibberellins  work well for reducing early and June drop of citrus. June drop is exacerbated by deficiencies in nitrogen or other nutrients, sudden high temperatures, lack of water, and infestations of mites and other insects.   GA3 enhances early fruit growth, resulting in inhibition of early fruit drop and June drop, and an increase in final fruit set.   The auxin 2,4-D is used world wide to reduce preharvest drop, the timing of application depends on the cultivar, and it is typically applied with GA3 to also delay rind ageing, so that treated fruit remain young for a longer period of time.  - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Don't do what i did.!!!!
« on: July 15, 2014, 03:18:53 PM »
I purchase GA3 solution from a local chemical supplier who markets their products to the commercial floral greenhouse industry. I purchase it in 1 pint bottles, which last me for some time.  If you cannot locate a supplier in your area, I would be happy to send some to you. - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Don't do what i did.!!!!
« on: July 15, 2014, 10:20:20 AM »
Bees and GA3 both will set fruit on a Page tree. The difference between the two is that bees actually pollinate the tree by cross pollinating the flowers with pollen from a neighboring tree. Therefore since pollen is used the Page fruit will have seeds.  GA3 also sets the bloom, but without pollen, and a non-pollinated flower will be seedless. - Millet

Chandler is the English name for the pink pummelo variety.  What the given name is in Thai for the same variety  is unknown to me. - Millet

Looks like a pumello variety called Chandler. - Millet

Went to a restaurant this morning for breakfast. A man at the next table had ordered, and was drinking a glass of orange juice.  Things are looking up! - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Don't do what i did.!!!!
« on: July 13, 2014, 10:04:42 AM »
Luak, Do they still have the car show in Eureka springs? -Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Don't do what i did.!!!!
« on: July 12, 2014, 06:24:58 PM »
Luak, tangelos aren't very self-fertile, so it helps to have a compatible citrus tree nearby for pollination. Temple, Sunburst, or  Fallglo, are just a few of the good varieties to ensure good pollination and high fruit yields.  However, you really don't require any  citrus variety in order  to "pollinate" your Page tangelo.  You can easily spray the tree when it is in bloom with Gibberellic acid (GA3).  Gibberellic acid sprays will give the tree a high fruit set. This is how clementine mandarins, the world over,  are made to set  large crops of seedless fruit. - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Did YouKnow
« on: July 12, 2014, 11:16:17 AM »
nickytwo, I don't think Robby is writting about the largest size fruit, I believe he is posting about the size of the navel at the bottom of the fruit. - MIllet

Citrus General Discussion / News From The National Cancer Institute
« on: July 11, 2014, 03:50:41 PM »
This section contains the following key information:

•Citrus pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruit and can be modified by treatment with high pH and temperature.

•Preclinical research suggests that modified citrus pectin (MCP) may have effects on cancer growth and metastasis through multiple potential mechanisms.

•Very limited clinical research has been done with a couple of citrus pectin-containing products. For prostate cancer patients, the results suggest some potential clinical benefits with relatively minor and infrequent adverse events.

General Information and History
Pectin is a complex polysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. The word ‘pectin’ comes from the Greek word for congealed or curdled. Plant pectin is used in food processing as a gelling agent and also in the formulation of oral and topical medicines as a stabilizer and nonbiodegradable matrix to support controlled drug delivery.[1] Citrus pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruit and can be modified by treatment with high pH and temperature.[2] Modification results in shorter molecules that dissolve better in water and are more readily absorbed by the body than are complex, longer chain citrus pectins.[3] One of the molecular targets of MCP is galectin-3, a protein found on the surface and within mammalian cells that is involved in many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell growth and differentiation, the cell cycle, and apoptosis; MCP inhibits galectin-3 activity.

Some research suggests that MCP may be protective against various types of cancer, including colon, lung, and prostate cancer. MCP may exert its anticancer effects by interfering with tumor cell metastasis or by inducing apoptosis.

MCP was also shown to activate natural killer cells in leukemic cell cultures, suggesting it may be able to stimulate the immune system. - Millet

Thank you citrange for the work you put into searching out the history. Your research has cleared up the meaning of  nickytwo' post.  Still one wonders why the USA is importing citrus that EU countries refuse due to finding 36 of the South African shipments with Black Spot disease. - Millet

Now that the new leaves growing from your graft are receiving sun light and begin to transpire, enabling them to draw in more of the trees nutrients, they will darken just fine. Young leaves are a lighter shade of green than fully mature and aging leaves. The older leaves have their full complement of photosynthetic pigments and their cell wall maturity has become complete, both which contribute to the darker green tone.  For new young citrus leaves, it normally requires a month or two's time to grow into a fully  mature leaf, then they will join with their older brother leaves in the ranks of full coloration. Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Citrus & Temperatures
« on: July 10, 2014, 08:42:39 PM »
Guidelines, though not hard and fast rules, to the minimum temperatures that varieties of citrus trees can survive with out  damage to leaves and branches are:
Limes 29F(-1.6C)
Lemons & Grapefruit 26F, (-3C)
Meyer Lemon 22F, (-5.5C)
Oranges & Mandarins 21F (-6C)
Kumquats 19F (-7C)

Those are really dark purple flower buds.  Very ornamental indeed - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Citrus & Temperatures
« on: July 10, 2014, 09:55:03 AM »
Brian, Kumquats require 80F to form flower buds. - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Citrus & Temperatures
« on: July 09, 2014, 09:47:49 PM »
Most people know that orange trees (Citrus sinensis) start to grow at 55 degrees F. (13C) but few people know that  kumquats need a minimum temperature of 80 degrees F. (27C) in order to develop fruit. - Millet

I buy Old Orchard brand  100% Pomegranate juice, no sugar added, no artificial colors flavors or preservatives.  It comes in a 64-ounce bottle  for $6.95.   I also have a Wonderful Pomegranate tree which we put the fruit through the juicer.   Last year we even made Pomegranate jelly. - Millet

While nutritionists recommend eating whole fruits for the fiber and added nutritional benefits you get from the flesh and pulp (and because juices may have more sugar than the fruits themselves) certain juices can offer real health benefits.

Now, get the juicy facts about these sweet nectars of Mother Nature — before you pick your next bottle off the shelf!

# 1 Best Juice Pick: Vegetable Juice
Do your body a favor and enjoy a glass of vegetable juice. Veggie juices are friendlier to your waistline than typical fruit juices since they're lower in sugar and calories. Plus, they're loaded with important plant-based nutrients good for your health. Lycopene, the powerful antioxidant that gives tomato juice its red color, may help lower the risk of prostate cancer. Beet juice may help reduce blood pressure.

2nd Best Pick: Pomegranate Juice
A rich dose of antioxidants make this ruby-red beverage a jewel among juices. The nutrients in pomegranates may help protect brain function and fend off cancer. Plus, studies suggest pomegranate juice may even help prevent the buildup of fatty deposits in the carotid arteries in your neck.

Other Good Choices
Cranberry Juice — Loaded with vitamin C and other powerful antioxidants, cranberry juice may help prevent cardiovascular disease, stomach ulcers and cancer. Drinking just 10 ounces a day of unsweetened cranberry juice may also help reduce your risk of urinary tract infections.

Blueberry Juice — In one 12-week study, adults in their 70s with age-related memory decline experienced significant improvement in learning and memory tests after drinking two and a half cups of blueberry juice each day. So enjoy a glass or two of this blue wonder juice daily, and help boost your brain health and keep your memory sharp.

Acai Berry Juice — Native to South America, the acai berry holds promise as a juice superhero. While more research is yet to be done, early studies indicate the high concentration of antioxidants in the acai berry's pulp may surpass amounts found in cranberries, blackberries, strawberries and blueberries.

Cherry Juice — Not just the darling of fruit pies and turnovers, cherries are also the sweetheart of juices. Cherry juice delivers an abundant serving of antioxidants along with a side of anti-inflammatory benefits. One study suggests drinking a glass of cherry juice before and after a workout can actually help you reduce exercise-induced muscle pain.

Red Grape Juice — Like red wine in moderation, red grape juice can be good for your heart. Due to its potent dose of flavonoids and resveratrol, drinking an 8-ounce glass of red grape juice each day can help keep your immune system strong and healthy.

Prune Juice — Prune juice has long been touted for its ability to help relieve constipation, and for good reason. Not only is it high in fiber, it contains a natural laxative called sorbitol. Plus, with each 8-ounce glass, you get a whopping dose of antioxidants, iron and potassium — essential nutrients for good health.

Orange Juice — While this popular breakfast staple offers fewer antioxidants than some berry and grape juices, orange juice still delivers a healthy dose of vitamin C — good for your immune system. To help save some calories and protect your bone health, too, choose unsweetened orange juice fortified with calcium and vitamin D.

Worst Choice: Juice Cocktails

Avoid beverages labeled "juice cocktail," "juice-flavored beverage" or "juice drink." They're high in calories and low in nutritional value. That's because most contain hefty servings of sugar and small amounts of real juice. Instead, choose unsweetened juices labeled "100% fruit juice."

Fruits and vegetables are an essential part of any diet. While no juices can completely replace everything you get from eating whole produce, the right ones can provide many of the essentials you need to stay healthy and active

Good luck with that. - Millet

On any day, a carton of orange juice can be found in almost 7 out of 10 American refrigerators. Americans drink more than 550 million gallons of orange juice every year with more than 60 million gallons of that juice being organic. And the appetite for organic juice -- and organic citrus -- is just getting bigger.

Citrus greening research is essential for saving organic citrus.
But a devastating bacterial disease known as citrus greening is now threatening the livelihood of America's citrus growers and the healthy diets of millions. To answer that threat, The Organic Center has kicked off a major multi-year study and fundraising campaign to find organic solutions to ward off citrus greening and help organic citrus growers fight the deadly disease without resorting to dangerous chemicals or genetic engineering.

The Organic Center, an independent non-profit educational and research organization operating under the administrative auspices of the Organic Trade Association (OTA), is launching a comprehensive and high-profile drive to raise its target of $310,000 for its three-year study, using its presence on social media to spread the message. For the first time in its history, The Organic Center is inviting individuals to help the effort by donations through crowdfunding at
A $45,000 grant from the UNFI Foundation has laid the foundation for the drive. The UNFI Foundation is concerned that the bulk of research thus far to control citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB), has focused on conventional strategies that have had only limited success in the short-term, and are not allowed -- and thus not even an option -- for the organic citrus growers struggling with the disease.

"Especially in this era of climate change, new pests and voracious diseases, organic agriculture deserves as much money for research as conventional agriculture. We must invest in non-toxic ecological solutions for now and for future generations," said Melody Meyer, director of the UNFI Foundation and president of the Board of Directors of OTA.

The American appetite for organic fresh citrus and citrus juice is big and growing. According to recent statistics compiled by OTA and the fresh fruit industry, organic fresh fruit sales in 2013 (with citrus ranking among the most popular of organic fruits)  grew some 24 percent and organic citrus juice sales rose 26 percent, benefiting both organic citrus growers and health-minded consumers. That growth could be stalled by citrus greening.

Citrus greening disease threatens the citrus industry on a massive scale. It has devastated millions of acres of citrus crops throughout the United States and abroad, ravaging countries in Asia, Africa and South America. The destructive disease spreads quickly, and within four to five years can kill a tree.In the United States, the disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. It is carried by the tiny Asian citrus psyllid. The insects inject a bacterium into the tree,  which stops the flow of water, nutrients and minerals between the tree's roots and its leaves and branches, leading to yellowing leaves, green and bitter fruit, premature fruit drop and eventually the destruction of the tree.

Some estimates are that 99 percent of the citrus orchards in Florida--the biggest citrus producer in the nation with a $9 billion citrus industry--have been infected. In California, the country's leading producer of organic citrus, and Texas, with some 40,000 acres of conventional and organic citrus orchards, the insect that causes the disease has also been detected. Aggressive efforts are underway in those states and other citrus-growing areas to try to keep the deadly disease in check.

The lack of research on organic control of citrus greening means that practices not compatible with organic management are being considered. For example, mandatory sprays of synthetic pesticides have been proposed as a control method in California, but no organic alternatives are identified as substitutes for the spray regimes.

The UNFI grant will be applied to a three-year research project being led by The Organic Center, in collaboration with University of Florida entomologist Michael Rogers and Ben McLean, vice president and director of research for Uncle Matt's Organic, to find holistic organic solutions to controlling citrus greening. (Taken from The Business journals) - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Citrus Breeding Center Opens
« on: July 08, 2014, 12:38:11 PM »
Blake, thank you so much for informing us of the Philip Rucks Nursery operation.   After visiting the Philip Rucks web site, I was impressed.  For our  forum membership click on the link below, and be sure to take the Tour of the Philip Rucks operation. You will find the tour link on their web site.  The tour expertly shows how a citrus nursery supplies new citrus tree for the commercial  citrus  industry. There is also a lot of other good information concerning citrus. - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Valencias grown in the tropics
« on: July 07, 2014, 11:24:51 PM »
Citrus flowering is recurrent under tropical and semitropical conditions, with inflorescence and flowers being produced throughout the year.  As a result, fruit at different stages of development and maturity can be present on  a  tree at the same time. This complicates the harvest of properly mature fruit, resulting in a preponderance of juice quality fruit. Thus, commercial yields of fresh market fruit are typically low.  In semi-tropical and tropical citrus growing areas, winter water deficit stress is imposed on citrus trees of all cultivars to promote flowering, This compensates for inadequate exposure to low temperature during mild winters. - Millet

It has been four months since I purchased the two Page mandarins. The first tree is growing in a standard citrus medium, the second tree is growing  in 100% pure cedar chips. They are both producing their second flush of new growth, and at about the same time frame.  However, the new flush  of leaves growing on the tree in the  pure cedar mulch  are some what crinkled, while the leaves on the  Page tree that is growing in the standard medium are normal in appearance.  I don't know if the crinkling on the cedar tree is caused by the roots receiving too much root zone oxygen, or if the problem could be from a lack of continuous water to the root system? I have  been keeping up faithfully with the watering and fertilizing of both trees.  Of course the cedar mulch tree receives water more often, as a  pure wood medium does not retain water like a standard citrus medium does.  I'll will wait for the next flush, (the 3rd flush) to see if the mystery corrects itself.   Any thoughts? - Millet

Citrus General Discussion / Re: Growing Haas avacado in FL from seed
« on: July 07, 2014, 10:29:00 PM »
Avocados grown from seed will certainly bear fruit.  Seedling grown avocados have been bearing fruit for thousands of years.  However, there are two types of avocados, A and B avocados.  One produces its pollen in the morning and the other one produces its pollen in the evening.  For a large crop of fruit it is best to have one of each type for good pollination. - MIllet

The team from UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences said that it has discovered a chemical that kills the citrus greening
The chemical — benzbromarone — has been used to treat gout in humans but has never been approved for use in the United States because of concerns over reports of acute liver injury. Researchers sprayed greenhouse tree shoots infected with greening with three different chemicals, and the benzbromarone halted the bacteria in 80 percent of the infected trees' shoots.
But researchers caution that this good news is only the first step in a years long process "We are getting closer and closer," said researcher Claudio Gonzalez. - Millet

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