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Author Topic: 1840 Seedless grape 1840 wine grapes & cold hardy grapes.  (Read 590 times)

Francis_Eric

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1840 Seedless grape 1840 wine grapes & cold hardy grapes.
« on: August 11, 2020, 01:56:03 AM »
Personally I do not mind seeds,
 but looking through My emails for something else
 found this, and thought I'd share.

Termarina rossa Italian Seedless grape from 1840

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Termarina_rossa

Termarina rossa is a red Italian wine grape variety that is grown in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The grape is unique among Vitis vinifera varieties in that it is naturally seedless. Historically Termarina rossa was grown in the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia for use in production of jams and saba, a sweet syrup, made from boiling the must but today it is used as a blending variety in some of Indicazione geografica tipica (IGT) wines of the area.[1]







« Last Edit: August 11, 2020, 06:13:50 AM by Francis_Eric »

Francis_Eric

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Re: Termarina rossa Italian Seedless grape from 1840
« Reply #1 on: August 11, 2020, 02:14:01 AM »
I remember this Guy from  cold MN (Minnosota)  on a breeding forum (google forum)

He Was breeding some good stuff
Some Elmer Swenson grapes

http://www.chateaubortnov.com/breeding-projects.html

We have Vitis riparia grape (river bank grape)
that I plan to harvest this year

a lot of people on there like trying to breed wine grapes with Summer grape
Vitis aestivalis

it is said what made Norton wine from pretty good dry red wine
 (I aged a bottle for 10 years I knew it would be good aged for long
when It was so harsh at the wine tasting at St James )





Francis_Eric

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Re: Termarina rossa Italian Seedless grape from 1840
« Reply #2 on: August 11, 2020, 02:27:56 AM »
Jack Kellers Site  about native grape, and recipes
there is another site of the native grapes (see below post)
(edit it is easier to read on his site (if it works)
 Search (jack keller native grapes click cached)

(the site is not working , but if you search online,
and put cached you can read the site
(I do not do Facebook ,
 but looked I guess it has been this way for a while)

I really respect Jack I hope He is doing Fine with His Health

He is the one that taught me 1 pound of sugar in a gallon of water is Specific Gravity of 1.045 so 2 is 1.090 made measuring  the sugar so much easier, and a ton of other stuff .

« Last Edit: August 11, 2020, 02:36:27 AM by Francis_Eric »

Francis_Eric

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Re: Termarina rossa Italian Seedless grape from 1840
« Reply #3 on: August 11, 2020, 02:28:39 AM »
Vitis berlandieri, also known vernacularly as the Fall Grape, Winter Grape, Little Mountain Grape, Spanish Grape, and Uña Cimarrona, is best known as a rootstock to which Vitis vinifera and French-American hybrids are grafted. Because it is resistent to Pierce's Disease and a number of other maladies vinifera is susceptible to, and because it grows well on limestone as well as sand, and because it is a vigorous rooter, it is well suited as a rootstock.
This grape ripens in August and September south of the Rio Grande and in October and November in Central Texas. It is acidic until it ripens and then is sweet and quite delicious, but too small for convenient eating and not quite sweet enough to make a decent wine without a little sugar being added. It is small (1/5 to 1/3 inch) with 30 to 70 per cluster. The clusters are loose and open, the pedicels (stems) long. The skin is thin, the pulp juicy when ripe, usually with one or two seeds of a coffee color. Ripe berries retain enough acid to make a balanced wine. Their small size makes crushing difficult, so pectic enzyme will help extract the juice. Destemming by hand takes a while, but is necessary.

FALL GRAPE WINE
Makes 1 Gallon
13 to 15 lbs ripe fall grapes
1/3 to 1/2 lb finely granulated sugar
1 crushed Campden tablet
3/4 tsp pectic enzyme
1 tsp yeast nutrient
1 pkg Lalvin 71B-1122 yeast

Destem and crush the grapes and place in nylon straining bag. Tie bag closed and place in primary. Squeeze bag to extract enough juice to float a hydrometer in its test jar. Calculate sugar required to raise specific gravity to 1.088. Add sugar and stir well to dissolve it completely. Add finely crushed Campden tablet and stir in well. Cover primary with sanitized muslin and set aside 10 hours. Add pectic enzyme and stir well. Recover primary and set aside additional 10 hours. Add activated yeast, recover primary, and squeeze bag twice daily until active fermentation dies down (5-7 days). Remove nylon straining bag and drain, then press to extract all juice. Transfer juice to secondary, top up if required and fit airlock. Ferment 30 days, rack into clean secondary, top up, and refit airlock. Rack again after additional 30 days and stabilize wine. Sweeten to taste if desired and set aside 30 days, or forego sweetening, set aside 10-14 days, and rack into bottles. Age three to six months. [Author's own recipe]



Frost Grape (Vitis riparia) Wine
There are three grapes that bear the name "frost grapes." Vitis cordifolia, Vitis labrusca, and Vitis riparia all have varieties that sport that name because they are sour until the first frost sweetens them. The first type discussed here is a variety of Vitis riparia, and the recipe below is specific to that variety. This recipe is for 5 gallons and makes a very nice, medium-bodied, dry red. You could use more grapes and less water for a heavier-bodied wine, but I haven't worked out the ingredient adjustments for doing this. To make a single gallon, scale back the recipe proportionally.
Frost grapes (Vitis riparia) grow wild from east Texas north to Missouri and northeast through Connecticut to the Atlantic. It grows along streams and river banks, low wetlands, and in wooded thickets. It produces a large vine, often climbing, with stout, smooth, rounded branches. Its leaves typically grow 4-7 inches long and almost as wide. They are widest near the base and taper to an almost rounded tip. They are usually unlobed to slightly 3-lobed and have smooth surfaces above and below.
The frost grape derives its name from its fruit, which are 0.2 to 0.4 inches in diameter, rounded in medium clusters, turning black upon ripening. They are sour tasting until they experience a frost, after which they turn sweet. It is then that they are suitable for winemaking. The frost grape is not usually a high acid grape.
The recipe below asks for a lot of grapes and makes a very "full-flavored" wine with a wild tang to it. In fact, half the amount of grapes could be used for a smoother, less "wild-tasting" wine. To use less grape, adjust ingredients (water and sugar) accordingly.

FROST GRAPE WINE
Makes 5 Gallons
45-50 lbs Frost Grapes
7-10 lbs finely granulated sugar
water to top up (about 2 gallons, + or -)
3-1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
5 crushed Campden tablets or 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
1 tsp acid blend
5 tsp yeast nutrient
pkt Montrachet wine yeast
Pick the grapes when fully ripe or just past ripeness (when there is a slight slackness to the skin) following the first autumn frost. Wash, destem and crush the grapes in primary fermentation vessel. Strain enough juice to float your hydrometer. Measure specific gravity and return juice to primary. Add sugar to bring S.G. to 1.088 (dissolve sugar in boiling water at ration of 2 parts [by volume] sugar to one part [by volume] water, stir until dissolved, allow to cool to room temperature, and then add to primary) and stir with wooden paddle. Add crushed Campden tablets or potassium metabisulfite, stir, cover primary, and wait 12 hours. Add pectic enzyme, acid blend and yeast nutrient, stir, recover, and wait additional 12 hours. Add yeast and recover primary. Punch down the cap twice daily for 7-10 days (until S.G. is 1.010). Strain and press grapes. Measure juice and calculate water needed to bring volume to 5 gallons. Return juice to primary and recover. Measure water required and bring to boil. To each gallon of water required, add 2 lbs 5 oz sugar, remove from heat and stir to dissolve. Allow to cool, add water to primary and recover. Ferment 3-5 days (until S.G. drops back to 1.010). Rack into secondary and fit airlock. After 7 days, top up if required. Three weeks later, rack into sanitized secondary, top up and refit airlock. Set aside for 4 months. Stabilize and wait 30 days for dead yeast to fall, then rack into bottles. This wine can be consumed immediately but will improve with age. [Adapted from recipe from Herman Thomas, Youngstown, Ohio]



Muscadine Grape (Vitis Rotundifolia) Wines
Muscadine grapes, the infamous Vitis rotundifolia, is a black cousin to the bronze scuppernong. Found throughout the southeast from east Texas-Arkansas to the Atlantic, the muscadine and its wine are as Southern as Shoo Fly Pie and Apple Pan Dowdy.
Theses grape vines are terrific climbers and reach up high into trees, cover brush, climb telephone poles and guy wires, and run along fences, growing up to 50 feet per year. The grapes themselves are usually sweet but can be acidic requiring lots of sugar and positive acid reduction measures to make a decent wine. Like the mustang grape, the muscadine is not the best wine grape, but since it's readily available and free to boot, it will do--often quite nicely. Muscadine wine can be very good, especially when allowed to age 3-4 years. Having said that, I'll add one other precautionary warning. When high in acidity, muscadine grapes can cause severe skin irritation until the acidity is corrected. For that reason, wear rubber gloves when picking, handling and squeezing these wild grapes. The wine won't taste any better, but you'll avoid a 2-3-week rash between your fingers and on your wrists should they prove to be irritating.

MUSCADINE GRAPE WINE (1) (Makes 1 Gallon)
6 lbs ripe Muscadine Grapes
2-1/4 lbs granulated sugar
3 qts water
1 tsp pectic enzyme
1 tsp yeast nutrient
1 crushed Campden tablet
1 packet Montrachet wine yeast
Boil the water and dissolve the sugar in it. While sugar-water is cooling, wash, destem and crush the grapes. Pour crushed grapes into nylon straining bag, tie securely, and put in primary. Pour water over grapes, add crushed Campden tablet and yeast nutrient, and cover primary securely. After 12 hours add pectic enzyme. Wait additional 12 hours and measure both specific gravity and acid. S.G. should be 1.090 or higher; acidity no higher than 7 p.p.t. tartaric. Correct S.G. if required by adding additional sugar. Correct low acid by adding acid blend and high acid by using one of three methods described following recipes. Add yeast, recover primary, and squeeze nylon bag lightly and stir must twice daily for about 5-7 days or until S.G. drops to 1.020. Press pulp well to extract liquid. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and let stand 3 weeks. Rack and top up, then rack again in 2 months and again after additional 2 months. If wine has cleared, bottle. If not, wait until wine clears, rack again and bottle. This wine may be sweetened before bottling by stabilizing, waiting 10-12 hours, then adding 2/3 to 1-1/3 cup sugar-water per gallon (2 parts sugar dissolved in 1 part water). May taste after one year, but improves remarkably with age (2-4 years). [Author's recipe.]

MUSCADINE GRAPE WINE (2)
Makes 1 Gallon
6-8 lbs Muscadine Grapes
2 lbs granulated sugar
3 qts water
1 tsp pectic enzyme
1 tsp yeast nutrient
1 crushed Campden tablet
1 packet Montrachet wine yeast
Wash and destem the grapes. Run grapes through a grape crusher or crush in crock primary using a sterilized 4X4 or other suitable device in an up-and-down action. Meanwhile, bring water to boil. Add sugar to grapes and pour boiling water over grapes and sugar. Stir well to dissolve sugar. Add crushed Campden tablet and yeast nutrient and cover crock. Wait 12 hours and add pectic enzyme. Wait 12 additional hours and measure both specific gravity and acid. S.G. should be 1.088 or higher; acidity no higher than 0.70% TA. Correct S.G. and acid as in recipe (1) above, if required. Add yeast, recover primary, and stir must 2-4 times daily, knocking down "cap" of skins and seeds each time. Check S.G. daily until it drops to 1.040. Strain and press pulp well to extract liquid and discard pulp. Recover primary and continue fermenting as before until S.G. reaches 1.020. Siphon into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and ferment to dryness (30-60 days). Rack and top up, then rack again every 30 days until wine has cleared. Wait additional 30 days, stabilize, and rack again. Sweeten to taste and bottle. Allow to age at least 18 months before drinking. Improves with additional aging. [Adapted from recipe published in New Orleans area newspaper, identity unknown, circa 1990.]

MUSCADINE GRAPE WINE (3)
Makes 3 gallons
20-22 lbs ripe Muscadine Grapes
5-6 lbs granulated sugar
8-9 qts water
3 tsp pectic enzyme
3 tsp yeast nutrient
3 crushed Campden tablet
1 packet Montrachet wine yeast
Boil the water and dissolve the sugar in it. While sugar-water is cooling, wash, destem and crush the grapes. Pour crushed grapes into primary. Pour water over grapes, add crushed Campden tablets and yeast nutrient and cover primary securely. After 12 hours add pectic enzyme. Wait additional 12 hours and measure both specific gravity and acid. S.G. should be 1.090 or higher; total acidity no higher than 0.75%. Correct S.G. if required by adding additional sugar. If acid is low, add acid blend as required. If acid is high, use one of three reduction methods described following recipes. Add activated yeast, recover primary, and punch down the cap twice daily (about 5-9 days) until S.G. drops to at least 1.020. Strain off pulp and press in fruit or grape press to extract liquid. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and ferment to dryness (S.G. at 0.990). Rack and top up, then rack again in 2 months and again after additional 2 months. If wine has cleared, bottle. If not, wait until wine clears, rack again and bottle. This wine may be sweetened before bottling by stabilizing, waiting 10-12 hours, then adding 2 to 3 cups sugar-water (2 parts sugar dissolved in 1 part water). This wine is drinkable immediately but improves remarkably with age (1-3 years). [Author's recipe.]



Mustang Grape (Vitis Mustangensis) Wines

Larger than average mustang grapes from Fredericksburg, Texas
(for more mustang grape photos, click here and then return
The Mustang Grape (specifically, the Vitis Mustangensis), identified variously as a variety of Vitis Rotundifolia (Buckley, in error) and Vitis Candicans (Englemann, the accepted name for decades), grows wild all over south, central, and east Texas, and in fact is found in northern Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama as well. The vines climb trees, cover brush, and run along fences, putting out runners (canes) up to 300 feet in length.
We have several Mustang Grape vines on our property, with the base of the vine reaching a respectable eight inches in diameter. Like all grapes, berries appear on buds from last year's wood. The clusters are very small, numbering from 2 to 20 berries per, that ripen to jet black with varying bloom, redish-purple, and even bronze. The high acidity in Mustang Grapes can cause severe skin irritation until the acidity is corrected. For that reason, wear rubber gloves when picking, handling and squeezing these wild grapes. The gloves will also keep your hands from staining purple.
In my area of south central Texas, the Mustang Grapes ripen and begin to fall from the vines by late June. We harvested our first lot 20-21 June and our last on 5 July and started 15 gallons of wine in three batches. The harvest here runs through late July (with some ripe berries hanging on into the fall), but in northern Texas and the Texas Hill Country harvest will be in full swing by the end of July.
Mustangs are very acidic, tart and almost impossible to eat with any degree of enjoyment. Indeed, their acid is so strong it can burn the mouth. It therefore surprises many that Mustang Grapes make such outstanding wines. The acid must be corrected, of course, but this is usually done by dilution with water and/or cold stabilization and chemical intervention (by james key). Their natural sugar is insufficient to make a self-preserving wine and must be supplemented, but many native grapes suffer a low Brix. Notwithstanding the displeasure some winemakers have regarding water dilution and sugar addition, the resulting Mustang wine is often outstanding. This does not surprise Texans, but outsiders who taste the grape are usually astounded by the wine.
The natural tendendcy with Mustang Grapes and other acidic natives is to over-sweeten the must. This can result in retarding or even preventing activation of the yeast, and if that doesn't happen the result will, of course, be a lengthy fermentation and a very sweet wine. A lengthy fermentation can produce off flavors which cannot be corrected except by blending, and even then only partially so. Another danger is that fermentation will slow to the point where one assumes it has stopped when it really hasn't. Bottling such a wine without stabilizing it can be either dangerous or serendipitous -- dangerous if the corks pop (or, worse, the bottles explode) and serendipitous if a sparkling red results in intact bottles.

Larger than average mustang grape
cluster and berries, Fredericksburg, Texas
The Mustang, like many North American native grapes with a wet stem scar, has slip-skin fruit. This means that the skin will rather easily slip off the pulp of the fruit if pulled or squeezed just right. In turn, this means it can, with a little additional work, be prepared for fermentation without its skins, thereby producing a clear white wine. Pressing immediately after crush will result in a pale blush wine. But, since much of the "Mustang" flavor is in the skins, the flavor of the white and blush Mustang will be very different from the red Mustang. This flavor can, to some degree, be retained by fermenting the white/bronze varieties of the grape on their skins. Also known as the "Bird-Free Mustang" (Parsons), the white is rare in the wild (usually appearing as a bronze) but can be found.
The recipes below are arranged from dry to sweet. They ask for a lot of grape and make very "full-flavored" wines with a wild tang to them. In fact, half the amount of grape could be used for smoother, less "wild-tasting" wine. To use less grape, adjust the sugar for a starting specific gravity of 1.110. For the sweeter ones, begin with half the sugar dissolved in the must and the remainder dissolved in water and reserved. Add half the reserve to the must when the S.G. drops to 1.035, then add the remainder about three days later. This will lengthen the fermentation time, but not unnecessarily so. More importantly, it will not retard or stop the fermentation process.

MUSTANG GRAPE WINE (Dry, Red) [1]
Makes 1 Gallon
6 lbs. black Mustang Grapes
1-1/2 lbs. granulated sugar
6 pints water
1 crushed Campden tablet
wine yeast and nutrient
Remove the stems and wash the grapes. While wearing rubber gloves, crush the grapes in a crock or polyethyline pail. Add all ingredients except yeast. Stir well and cover for 24 hours, then add yeast. The must will form a floating "cap" of skins and seeds which should be pushed under and stirred twice daily for 5 to 7 days. Strain and press pulp well to extract liquid. Measure acidity, then follow one of the methods below to reduce the acidity to 7 parts per thousand (p.p.t.) tartaric if necessary. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and let stand three weeks. Rack and top up, then rack again in three months and add fining. Bottle ten days after fining. May taste after one year, but improves remarkably with age (3-4 years). [Adapted from a traditional "wild grape" recipe.]

MUSTANG GRAPE WINE (Semi-Dry, White) [2]
Makes 1 Gallon
6 lbs. black Mustang Grapes
1-3/4 lbs. granulated sugar
6 pints water
1 crushed Campden tablet
wine yeast and nutrient
Remove the skins while the grapes are still on the stems, then remove the skinless grapes from the stems. Wash the fruit and put in nylon jelly-bag. Tie end of bag and, while wearing rubber gloves, crush the grapes in the bag over a crock or polyethyline pail. Add all ingredients except yeast. Stir well and cover for 24 hours, then add yeast. Push the bag under liquor twice daily for 5 to 7 days. When vigorous fermentation subsides, squeeze pulp well to extract liquid. Measure acidity, then follow one of the methods below to reduce the acidity to 7 parts per thousand (p.p.t.) tartaric if necessary. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, top up with water, fit airlock, and let stand three weeks. Rack and top up, then rack again in three months. Bottle when clear, or add fining after two weeks if wine doesn't clear. Bottle ten days after fining. May taste after one year, but continues improving with age to about three years. [Author's recipe.]

MUSTANG GRAPE WINE (Semi-Sweet, Red) [3]
Makes 1 Gallon
8 lbs. black Mustang Grapes
2 lbs. granulated sugar
5 pints water
1 tsp. pectic enzyme
1 crushed Campden tablet
Montrachet wine yeast and nutrient
Remove the stems and wash the grapes while boiling water. While wearing rubber gloves, crush the grapes in a crock or polyethyline pail. Add all ingredients except Campden tablet, pectic enzyme and yeast. Add boiling water and stir well to dissolve sugar. Cover. After two hours add crushed Campden tablet and after additional 10 hours add pectic enzyme. Twelve hours later add yeast. The must will form a floating "cap" of skins and seeds which should be pushed under and stirred twice daily for 7 days. Strain and press pulp well to extract liquid. Measure acidity, then follow one of the methods below to reduce the acidity to 7 parts per thousand (p.p.t.) tartaric if necessary. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and let stand 30 days. Rack and top up, then rack again in three months. Bottle when clear, fining if necessary. May taste after one year, but improves remarkably with age (3-4 years). [Author's recipe.]

MUSTANG GRAPE WINE (Sweet, Red) [4]
Makes 1 Gallon
10 lbs. (one gallon) black Mustang Grapes
2 lbs. granulated sugar
1/2 gallon water
1 tsp. pectic enzyme
Champagne or Montrachet wine yeast and nutrient
This wine may have too strong a "wild" flavor for some. It can be blended with almost any thin wine without detracting from the flavor. Remove the stems and wash the grapes. Place in large pot with one cup of water and set over low to medium heat, covered. Stir with wooden paddle every 10 minutes until grapes break apart and juice oozes out. Allow to cool. Meanwhile, boil water and pour into crock over sugar, stirring to dissolve. Set half of sugar-water aside in quart jar. When grapes are tepid, over crock pour grape juice and pulp into nylon jelly bag, tie bag and leave it crock with juice. Add yeast nutrient and pectic enzyme. Cover and set aside 10-12 hours. Add yeast and re-cover crock. Use wooden paddle to push bag under juice twice daily for 7 days. Drain bag and press pulp well to extract residual juice. Measure acidity of liquor, then follow one of the methods below to reduce the acidity to 7 parts per thousand (p.p.t.) tartaric if necessary. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, top up with reserved sugar-water, fit airlock, and let stand three weeks. Rack and top up with remaining sugar-water, then rack again in three additional weeks. Set aside two more months. Rack and allow to clear. Wait one month. If lees are still being deposited, allow another month. Rack, stabilize and bottle when clarity returns. May taste after one year, but improves remarkably with age. [Author's recipe.]

MUSTANG GRAPE WINE [5] (for 5 gallons)
1/2 bushel very ripe Mustang Grapes
12-15 lbs. granulated sugar
4 gallons water
6 crushed Campden tablets
3 tblsp yeast nutrient
Red Star Montrachet or Lalvin 71B-1122 wine yeast
Destem and wash the grapes. While wearing rubber gloves, crush the grapes in a barrel, crock or polyethyline primary. Add water, 2 lbs sugar to start, nutrient, and crushed Campden tablets, stirring well to dissolve sugar. Cover and let stand 24 hours. Add yeast. Stir every morning for 5 to 6 days, or until all solids rise to top to form a floating "cap" of skins and seeds. Remove all solids and strain juice through a cloth sack. Add remaining sugar (10 lbs if using Montrachet yeast, 13 lbs if using Lalvin 71B) and stir well to dissolve. Pour (better yet, siphon) juice into glass secondary (do not top up) and fit airlock. When fermentation stops, rack, top up, and refit airlock. Rack again in two months and again two months later. Bottle without sweetening. The Lalvin 71B yeast will yield a higher alcohol content. May taste right away but will "mature" in 1-2 years. [Adapted from Poteet Country Winery recipe by Alvin Sueltenfuss, Boerne, Texas]
TEXAS MUSTANG WINE [6] (for 5 gallons)
From George Ray McEachern, Extension Horticulturist, June 5, 1999


The early German and Czech settlers in Texas developed a very good system for making wine from the native mustang grape. This grape grows along fences over most of Texas, and the fruit will be ripening in July and early August. The following is a typical Czech recipe used in Texas for Mustang Wine. It was handed down for 3 generations to Bob Rozacky of Granger, Texas.
Harvest. Start with fully ripe, rain-washed mustang grapes on the cluster. Do not de-stem. Start the fermentation as soon as possible. Do not let the fruit sit for several hours. When the pickers come in from the field, have your equipment read to go. Remove any green leaves or any foreign matter. Fill a very clean, 10-gallon crock or plastic garbage can with fruit. Do not use metal, galvanized, or aluminum cans. Crush the fruit down to a soggy must. Acid of the fruit can blister your skin, so Rozacky uses a clean, non-treated wooden board, 4 inches by 4 inches by 6 feet long (4"X4"X6?.
Primary Fermentation. Naturally-occurring yeasts on the skin of the grapes will begin to multiply, utilizing the sugar in the grapes, so no yeast need be added; however, some wine makers use bread yeast or wine yeast purchased from a wine shop. This primary fermentation will begin in 2 or 3 days in the 10-gallon container. Do not add water, do not add sugar, and do not add starter yeast. Let the natural primary fermentation take place. This can be done in a garage, on the back porch, or in a crib or barn . . . any warm place. It is very important to tightly cover the top with a clean cloth to keep insects out. Check the grapes daily. Do not stir the must or crushed grapes. The speed will begin to pick up in 2 or 3 days, and you will be able to see and hear the bubbles of carbon dioxide gas. This is a good sign that fermentation is progressing properly. Allow the primary fermentation to run its full course. You can tell when it stops, because the must cap on top of the raw wine will drop, and you will hear no more bubbles. The deep red color and tannin are extracted from the grapes during primary fermentation.
Secondary Fermentation. The next fermentation should take place in a clean 5-gallon glass carboy. Siphon off 2-1/2 gallons of the raw wine into the 5-gallon carboy. Press the rest of grapes in a nylon straining bag by hanging it up and letting the raw wine drip through the nylon mesh. Add 2-1/2 gallons of previously boiled sugar-water to 2-1/2 gallons of raw wine [to make sugar-water, boil 2-1/2 gallons of water, add 10 pounds of sugar, and cook until the mixture comes to a full boil; cut off the heat, and allow the sugar-water to cool all the way down to room temperature]. Completely fill a 5-gallon glass carboy with enough of the raw wine and sugar-water mixture so that no air is present in the bottle. The secondary fermentation will begin in 2 or 3 days; cork the carboy with an air lock. As the wine continues to ferment, carbon dioxide will be released, and the wine level will go down. Add sugar-water daily to keep the carboy full. After you see no more bubbles -- in about 2 or 3 weeks -- you are ready to seal the carboy. Be sure it no longer bubbles. The alcohol in the wine will kill the yeasts, and stop further fermentation. The sweetness of the final wine will be determined by how much sugar is left in the wine when the yeasts are killed by the alcohol. Let the wine age in the glass carboy for 6 months until cold weather. In December, after a freeze or frost, siphon wine into bottles, and cap or cork. Label bottles with date and year.



If the acidity of the grapes is too high, further acid reduction may be required. Here are three methods....
Acid Reduction with Calcium Carbonate: For liquors with acid levels of 10 p.p.t. or more, calcium carbonate is traditionally used to reduce acid through precipitation. A measured 2.5 grams of calcium carbonate will reduce the acidity of one gallon of wine or liquor by one p.p.t. For best results, split the liquor into two equal portions and add the calcium carbonate to one while stirring vigorously. Carbon dioxide will be given off and cause foaming. Chill the treated liquor several days and then siphon it off the lees of calcium carbonate into the untreated portion. The addition of a teaspoon of yeast energizer may be required to reactivate fermentation after treatment.
Acid Reduction with Potassium Bicarbonate: For liquors with acid levels of 8 to 10 p.p.t., potassium bicarbonate treatment can be used to reduce acid through precipitation and neutralization. A measured 3.4 grams or 0.1 oz. of potassium bicarbonate will reduce the acidity of one gallon of wine or liquor by one p.p.t. The compound is stirred directly into the full batch, then chilled to facilitate precipitation of potassium bicarbonate lees. The addition of a teaspoon of yeast energizer may be required to reactivate fermentation after treatment.
Acid Reduction through Water Dilution: This is the least desirable method, only because the Mustang Grape flavor is diluted and the resulting wine will suffer. The acid is inversely proportional to the volume of liquor, so the steps in reducing acidity from 10 p.p.t., for example, to 7 p.p.t., are: (1) 7 / 10 = 0.70 (2) 100 / 0.70 = 1.428 (3) 1.428 x 128 (oz. per gallon) = 182.784 total oz. required (4) 182.784 (total required) - 128 (oz. per gallon) = 54.784 (oz. per gallon required to be added).



Riverside Grape (Vitis Riparia) Wine
The "Riverside Grape" is a variety of Vitis riparia. It is a sour grape that makes a decent red wine. The recipe below is for one gallon.
Riverside Grapes grow wild from east Texas north to North Dakota and most states east of those, except Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas. It grows along streams and river banks, margins of woodlands, and in wooded thickets. It produces a large vine, often climbing, with tough, smooth, rounded branches. Its leaves typically grow 4.7-8 inches long and 3-6 inches wide. They are widest near the base, usually 3-lobed, heart-shaped at the base and long-pointed at the tip. Their surfaces are smooth above and hairy below.
Their fruit are 0.3 to 0.6 inches in diameter, rounded in small to medium elongated clusters, turning black upon ripening with a whitish bloom. While they are sour tasting, they nonetheless make a decent wine when supplemented with sugar.

RIVERSIDE GRAPE WINE
Makes 1 Gallon
10 lbs Riverside Grapes
1-1/2 to 2 lbs finely granulated sugar
water to top up (about 1-1/2 qts)
1 tsp pectic enzyme
1 crushed Campden Tablets
1 tsp yeast nutrient
Montrachet wine yeast
Pick the grapes when fully ripe or just past ripeness. Wash, destem and crush the grapes in primary fermentation vessel. Add 2 qts water, stir and strain enough juice to float your hydrometer. Measure specific gravity and return juice to primary. Add sugar to bring S.G. to 1.088 (dissolve sugar in boiling water at ratio of 2 parts [by volume] sugar to one part [by volume] water, stir until dissolved, allow to cool to room temperature, and then add to primary) and stir with wooden paddle. Add crushed Campden tablet, stir, cover primary, and wait 12 hours. Add pectic enzyme, acid blend and yeast nutrient, stir, recover, and wait additional 12 hours. Add yeast and recover primary. Punch down the cap twice daily for 7-10 days (until S.G. is 1.010). Strain and press grapes and pour juice back into primary. Top up to one gallon with water containing enough dissolved sugar to obtain a specific gravity of 1.088. Cover and ferment 2-3 days (until S.G. drops back to 1.010). Rack into secondary and fit airlock. After 30 days, rack into sterilized secondary, top up and refit airlock. Rack again after two months and again two months after that. Stabilize and wait 10 days for dead yeast to fall, then rack into bottles. This wine can be consumed immediately but will improve with age. [Author's own recipe]



Scuppernong (Vitis Rotundifolia) Grape Wines
The Scuppernong is a natural white, or more accurately bronze, variety of Vitis rotundifolia. If we discount any thought that North Carolina was the fabled "Vinland" of the Vikings, that leaves the European discovery of the Scuppernong Grape to Giovanni de Verrazano, a French explorer and navigator, who discovered them in 1524 in the Cape Fear River Valley of North Carolina.
Sir Walter Raleigh's colony is credited with discovering the famed Scuppernong "mother-vine" on Roanoke Island and introducing it elsewhere (circa 1584-85). The vine had a trunk two feet thick and covered half an acre. It, along with some neighboring vines, supplied the Mother Vineyard Winery, which operated in Manteo, NC until 1954.
At first the grape was simply called the "Big White Grape" by settlers. During the 17th and 18th centuries cuttings of the mother vine were placed into production around a small town called Scuppernong in Washington County, NC and along the Cape Fear River east of Fayetteville. The name Scuppernong comes from an Algonquin Indian name, "Ascopo," for the sweet bay tree. "Ascupernung," meaning place of the "Ascopo," appears on early maps of North Carolina as the name of a river in Washington County that runs into the Albemarle Sound. By 1800 the spelling of the river and town had become Scuppernong. On January 11th, 1811 the "Big White Grape" was first referred to in print (in a newspaper article reporting the census of 1810) as the "Scuppernong Grape." James Blount took the census of Washington County, NC and reported 1,368 gallons of wine made from that abundant grape.
The Scuppernong's unique flavor was marketed nationwide in the 20th Century by Paul Garrett & Company under the label "Virginia Dare." During the 13 years of Prohibition (1920-33), Garrett kept his wineries busy making Scuppernong cider, and when Prohibition ended his were the only wineries ready for immediate production. "Say it again....Virginia Dare" was the first singing radio commercial for an alcoholic beverage in history.<

SCUPPERNONG GRAPE WINE (19th Century Recipe)
<
3-4 gallons Scuppernong Grapes
3 lbs sugar
Remove grapes from stems and wash. Mash them as best you can and press hard. Let juice and hulls stand 48 hours. Drain well to extract all juice. To one gallon of juice add three pounds sugar and stir well. Transfer to fermenting jar and tie linen over jar. Let stand several weeks, ladle into bottles and apply corks. Let it lie a month or two before drinking. [Adapted from a Mary Elizabeth Sproull Lanier recipe, circa 1880]
Comments: I'd love to taste this wine! Made with pure scuppernong juice and fermented with the wild yeast attached to the grapes, it has to taste the way scuppernong wine was intended to taste, although I imagine the alcohol content would only range in the 6-8% neighborhood. If you live in North Carlina and can get the grape in quantity, you might try it, although I think I'd use more modern fermentation equipment, adjust the sugar for dryness, and add a little sauterne or champagne wine yeast. I'd also rack it every three weeks for at least nine weeks and be darned sure the fermentation had ceased before bottling. I can almost taste it....

SCUPPERNONG GRAPE WINE (Folk Recipe)
4-6 gallons Scuppernong Grapes
4-8 lbs sugar
Gather ripe grapes. Remove from stems and wash. Put washed grapes in clean tub and use a seasoned but clean fence post to mash grapes by dropping upright post into tub. Do not pound grapes or you'll break seeds and ruin the juice. Cover the tub with clean flannel for three days, stirring the mashed grapes with wooden paddle 2-3 times a day. Put mashed grapes in a clean flour sack and lay this on a clean scrubboard angled about 45 degrees. Press palms on sack to press out juice, working from top to bottom several times. Depending on your strength, you should get 1 1/2 to 3 gallons of juice. Add sugar slowly, stirring with paddle to dissolve it. After each stirring, test an egg in the juice. When it floats to the top, stop adding sugar. Put into jugs and plug holes firmly with tightly rolled cloth strips so nothing can get in. There should be 2 inches between top of juice and cloth stopper. If you have any extra juice, save in a soda bottle, also stoppered with cloth, for later. Juice will ferment 2-4 weeks. When fermenting stops, wait another two weeks and pour through clean flannel into clean jugs. Use water or strained saved juice to fill jugs. Cork tightly and set in cool dark place. Should be ready by Thanksgiving. [Adapted from a Georgia folk recipe by Ed Heyward of Macon, GA]
Note: Strictly speaking, this recipe comes from a state where Scuppernongs are not originally native, although they have been grown there as cultivars for over a century. Birds have certainly spread the seed and wild Scuppernongs are now found in Georgia. However, this recipe would probably work for any sweet, white native grape.
Comments: This is another all-juice, natural yeast wine. The concern for cleanliness is commendable. As in the previous recipe, more modern techniques should yield a better wine. These include use of an airlock, a hydrometer to measure total sugar content and finished dryness, several rackings, addition of proven wine yeast, and an expanded time frame.

SCUPPERNONG GRAPE WINE
(Adison Martin's Recipe)
Makes 3 Gallons
18 lb. scuppernong grapes
6 lb. sugar
9 quarts water
2 tsp. pectic enzyme
1 tblsp. yeast nutrient
3 crushed campden tablets
1 package champagne yeast
Gather ripe grapes. Destem and wash grapes, removing any that are bad. Crush grapes to extract maximum juice, and place pulp in nylon straining bag. Place sugar in primary fermentation vessel, then pour water over sugar, stirring well to dissolve. Add juice and straining bag to primary. Specific gravity should be 1.095-1.100. If not, add more sugar. Add remaining ingredients, except for pectic enzyme and yeast. Cover primary and set aside 12 hours, then add pectic enzyme and set aside additional 12 hours. Add activated yeast. Stir daily, squeezing nylon bag of pulp lightly to extract more juice, until specific gravity reaches 1.030, about 5-7 days. Remove bag and squeeze to extract juice. Add squeezed juice to primary and allow to settle overnight, then rack off of sediment into glass secondary. Attach airlock. When ferment is complete (specific gravity has dropped to 1.000 or below--about 3-4 weeks) rack into clean carboy and reattach airlock. Leave wine to clear for about 2-3 months, then rack into bottles. [Adapted from recipe by Adison Martin]



Summer Grape (Vitis Aestivalis) Wine
The "Summer Grape" derives its name from a late, summer blooming grape, ripening in late September through October. In Latin, Summer Grape is Vitis aestivalis, but it is also commonly known as the Bunch Grape and Pigeon Grape. It is an important food for many species of bird and mammal.
Summer Grapes grow wild from Oklahoma and Texas eastward to Florida, north to New Hampshire, and west to Wisconsin and Kansas. It grows in warm, sandy soil, in dry woods, in thickets, and along roadsides where its seed is often dropped by birds sitting on utility lines and fences. It produces a vigorous vine, high-climbing, with thin, reddish-brown branches that are wooly when new but soon smooth. Its internodes are short to medium and frequent, with its pith is interrupted at the nodes by a biconcave diaphragm. Its leaves typically grow 2-8 inches long and almost as wide, broader at the lobes flanking the apex than at the base shoulders. The leaves vary greatly from irregularly toothed and unlobed to (more commonly) deeply 3 to 5 lobed with lobes acute and sinuses acute or rounded. While leaf-shape is not a great identifier of the Summer Grape, their hairy, reddish undersurface is easily recognized.
Summer Grapes produce numerous, persistent fruit in long, open clusters of small, globular berries, 0.2 to 0.5 inches in diameter, turning dark blue to black upon ripening with a thin bloom. They are variable in quality, probably due to hybridization in the wild, and can have either dry and astringent or juicy and sweet flesh. Either will produce a very fine wine, but obviously one would require sugar supplementation and acid correction and the other would not.
The Summer Grape has a number of important varieties, but the most important are the Norton and/or Cynthiana (the and/or is because the Norton and Cynthiana are either different or the same, depending on which school you happen to be in). Also important are the Silver-Leaf Summer Grape (Vitis aestivalis var. argentifolia) and the Bourquin Summer Grape (Vitis aestivalis var. bourquiniana), cultivated since 1847.
The recipe below uses only the sweet, juicy berries, although a very good wine can be made fron the drier, astringent varieties.

SUMMER GRAPE WINE
Makes 1 Gallon
12-16 lbs Summer Grapes
1/2 to 3/4 lb finely granulated sugar
1 tsp pectic enzyme
1 crushed Campden tablet
1/4 tsp acid blend
1 tsp yeast nutrient
Montrachet wine yeast
Pick the grapes when fully ripe. Wash, destem and crush the grapes in primary fermentation vessel. Strain enough juice to float your hydrometer, measure specific gravity and return juice to primary. Add sugar to bring S.G. to 1.088 and stir with wooden paddle. Add crushed Campden tablet, stir, cover primary, and wait 12 hours. Add pectic enzyme, acid blend and yeast nutrient, stir, recover, and wait additional 12 hours. Add yeast and recover primary. Punch down the cap twice daily for 7-10 days (until S.G. is 1.010). Strain and press grapes and pour juice into secondary. Top up and ferment under airlock 30 days, rack into sterilized secondary, top up and refit airlock. Rack again every two months for six months. Stabilize, sweeten if desired, wait 10 days for dead yeast to fall, then rack into bottles. This wine can be consumed immediately but will improve with age. [Author's own recipe]



Got a Favorite Native Grape Recipe?
If you have a favorite (or simply a different) recipe for a native grape wine and want to share it, please send me an email. We'll both be richer for it.



Last update was November 7th, 2009.

Francis_Eric

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Re: Termarina rossa Italian Seedless grape from 1840 & cold hardy grapes.
« Reply #4 on: August 11, 2020, 03:17:17 AM »
From  Jack Kellers site

Fixxed link  -- archive . --org (typed in the broken one on archive ... org )
https://web.archive.org/web/20120210032802/http://winemaking.jackkeller.net/natives.asp

used google cach (to retrieve broken link (above is better can browse leaving in case breaks)
Hard to read below better clicking the links, and browsing the Jack keller  site, -- more on grapes there.

https://cc.bingj.com/cache.aspx?q=%22jack+keller++Munson%27&d=4803912366754741&mkt=en-US&setlang=en-US&w=ULjEeQa0IfyIkWDiSb_bqRBipnghcVnv
"Wild grapes are strong on flavor and weak on sugar, but sugar is cheap...."





Grapes grow wild almost everywhere in the United States, Canada and Mexico except in the extreme deserts and the tundra of the extreme north. The genus is Vitis, of which there are perhaps no more than 50 species in the entire world. For reasons still not understood, more than half the world's species are native to North America. Why this is so is not only a great mystery, but contains within it countless minor mysteries as well. As U.P. Hedrick asked in his 1908 seminal work, The Grapes of New York:
How did the grape spread from the Carolinas to California and from subtropical Mexico to the barren plains of Central Canada? Why divide into its manifold forms in the distribution?...All would take the ground that the different wild forms come from one ancestral species.
Native North American grapes were certainly widely distributed and diversified long before ancient man arrived on this continent. Fossils tell us that much. Their distributions have been natural, with birds, animals and moving water providing the means of their spread. Again, Hedrick:
As a species has encroached upon a new region, climate, soil, all of the conditions of environment, and the contest with other living things, have gradually modified its characters until in time it became so changed that it constituted a new species.
The evolutionary descent--some would argue ascent--from an aboriginal species has resulted in grapes as varied and diverse as the regions they inhabit. Some species produce dwarf shrubs 2-6 feet high in harsh terrain where roots must find interstices in rock to gain foothold. Others produce enormous trunks supporting great canopies of branch and vine that produce fruit for two or more centuries. Between these extremes are a score of species that vary greatly and yet are close enough alike that identification is sometimes a difficult task. Their leaves, in particular--with few exceptions--are uncannily similar in shape and color, and yet subtle differences in shade, shape, texture, edging and other features exist and are identifiable to the trained eye. Here, I am speaking of the adult, mature leaves. Young vines of several species produce a variety of shapes, as the photograph below demonstrates -- in Vitis mustangensis, deeply lobed adolescent leaf-shapes give way to the more representative heart-shaped leaves of (lower row) the adult.

Eight different leaf shapes from
the same vine of Vitis mustangensis
Confusing the subject of identity and separation into species is the fact that, except for the Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis palmata, they hybridize naturally with captive (cultivated) grapes. Natural hybridization between native species, however, is rare, a point I did not appreciate until I met and spent time with Dr. Barry Comeaux, in my opinion the most knowledgeable and insightful man today on the native grapes of North America.

Barry Comeaux in his native grapes vineyard
To understand why native North American grapes do not readily hybridize, it is necessary to understand two concepts -- ecological barriers and phenological barriers -- that encourage reproductive isolation. Ecological barriers include (but are not limited to) wet, mesic (moderate or a well-balanced supply of moisture) and xeric (moisture deficient) environments as well as gradation (elevation). Phenological barriers include genetic interinfertility (between species of section Lenticellosis, [chromosomes 2n=40] and section Vitis [chromosomes 2n=38]), length of dormancy and natural spacing of flowering periods. When species coexist in the same ecological habitats, Comeaux found that they possessed phenological differences that served to preclude hybridization. For example, when Vitis labrusca and Vitis cinerea coexist, they are respectively the first Vitis to flower and the last to flower, with at least a month of separation. In some areas where the flowering periods are closer together, interinfertility prevails -- as when Vitis cinerea and Vitis rotundifolia coexist. Comeaux also found locations where one species occupied a wet valley, another occupied an adjacent mesic hillside or ridgeside and yet another occupied a semi-mesic hilltop or ridgetop. While interspecies hybridization can and does occur, it is far less prevalent in nature than previously believed. Indeed, it is rare.
Intraspecies differentiation -- i.e. the differentiation of a species into subspecies -- is far more likely than natural hybridization, and yet natural hybriduzation may play an important role in obscuring intraspecies differentiation itself. Indeed, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis cinerea and Vitis rotundifolia each has several subspecies. Populations exist where two or more of the Vitis aestivalis varieties (Vitis aestivalis va. aestivalis, Vitis aestivalis var. lincecumii, Vitis aestivalis var. glauca, and Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor), for example, exist contiguously and where, on their common boundary, they intergrade into an intermediate variety, neither one nor the other, but nonetheless recognizable as Vitis aestivalis. Whether this is a result of hybridization between the two varieties is impossible to tell presently, but does make differentiation difficult if not impossible with the tools available to the field collector today.
There is a great diversity of names associated with North American native grapes. So much so that even I am often confused. Therefore, I continue my research and make corrections here as I become convinced they are warranted. The problem is that so many early botanists went about classifying the natives without knowledge of the work of others, or with knowledge but without access to the specimens used by others, and, of course, some classifications were simply wrong -- cases of mistaken identity.
Linnaeus, Michaux, Munson, Engelmann, Simpson, Buckley, Bailey, Planchon, and others went about trying to make sense of the wide varieties of grapes found growing in the wild. The result is that there are a multitude of names assigned to grapes species, subspecies, varieties, and forms that found their way into the literature but are not accepted by authorities in taxon nomenclature. Many grapes are identified under two species, as you will note below if you are attentive in your reading. However, to quote Barry Comeaux, "With few exceptions, Munson got it pretty much right." Finally, names change. Vitis candicans (Engelmann), commonly known in Texas as the mustang grape, has been officially dropped in favor of the earlier Vitis mustangensis (Buckley). While I discovered this long ago, it took me many years for me to accept it. In my mind, it is still Vitis candicans Similarly, Vitis cordifolia (Michaux) has been abandoned in favor of Vitis vulpina (Linnaeus). But hanging around are a multitude of names assigned to the same grape -- not intentionally, but because the namer either thought he has discovered a new species, subspecies or variety, or, more often than not, he simply misidentified it.
For those who would do their own research and care for my opinion, I am most fond of the writings of Munson, Bailey, Engelmann and Comeaux, as they were able to retrospectively correct many mistakes of their predecessors (and contribute a few of their own). Hedrick's writing is the most readable and at 594 pages is a wonderful source, though hard to find. This section, I am sure, will continue to evolve as I continue my private studies and find time to comment on them.
Various authorities recognize between 19 and 35 species of native North American grape. I follow a course between these extremes, and continuing research results in occasional modifications of my listing. I doubt I shall ever be satisfied enough to call this chapter finished, but one must from time to time take a snapshot of what he thinks he knows and say this is where my knowledge stands today. My own conspectus of native North American Vitis species is reflected below.
Quite often the number of native grapes in a given state increases over time. This may be attributed to natural encroachment, but more often than not it is the result of man himself. I personally have two grapes growing on my back fences, grown from cuttings sent to me from both Atlantic and Pacific states, that are not naturally native to Texas (by james key). It is possible that birds will spread the seeds of these two species and seedlings may appear in my area quite "naturally." But the fact will remain that these two grapes are not indigenous to Texas. Citing Munson and others, I count 14 species as indigenous to Texas. Others have different counts based on evidence not cited.
The table below is as authoritative a list of native North American grapes as I am able to construct at this time, although my research continues. With 83 entries for 30 accepted and 5 pending species on the entire continent, it should should be recognized by all that far more species have been claimed than actually exist. Please note that those names below not recognized as representing a unique species contain the name of the actual species the unrecognized name in fact refers to. Common names in all cases refer to the accepted species.


---------------------------------
Grape genus PART Missing

----------------------------------


Compare the list above with the List of Offered Names for Vitis Species, linked below the text portion of this page.
Common names for native grape varieties are widely varied, often misappropriated from an entirely different species located elsewhere. At least two species (and ofter more) each have varieties referred to, for example, as the mustang grape, fox grape, frost grape, beach grape, gulch grape, canyon grape, sugar grape, florida grape, and bush grape. Small grapes are often incorrectly referred to as possum grape regardless of species. And almost everywhere I have pointed to wild grapes and asked local residents what they call them, I have been told, "Wild grapes."
Indeed, local names are more confusing than botanical names, and botanical names are confusing enough. It is universally accepted that the American native muscadine grape is the Vitis rotundifolia, yet that same grape has been variously identified (sometimes quite mistakenly) as Vitis acerifolia, Vitis angulata, Vitis callosa, Vitis cordifolia, Vitis Hyemalis, Vitis muscadina, Vitis mustangensis, Vitis peltata, Vitis taurina, and Vitis verrucosa. To help the viewer (hopefully), I'll list the common and botanical varieties for each of several species, citing the authority for the name in parentheses when known, although this list is by no means complete and indeed is still under construction. A word of warning, however: there are many duplicate names in the list below due to widespread confusion as to the identity of many wild grapes. As I said, I am attempting to tidy up the list and it is nowhere near as complete as the list in the table above.
Vitis acerifolia (Prince): Commonly, the mapleleaf grape, beach grape, bush grape, gulch grape, Long's grape, sand grape, sugar grape, and woolly riparia grape; botanically, Vitis cordifolia var. solonis (Planchon), Vitis longii (Prince), Vitis longii var. microsperma (Bailey), Vitis neuva mexicana (Lemmon), Vitis novo mexicana (Munson), Vitis rubra var. solonis (Planchon), Vitis solonis (Hort.), Vitis solonis var. microsperma (Munson), and Vitis solonis.
Vitis aestivalis (Munson): Commonly, the cynthiana grape, arkansas grape, Norton grape, Norton Virginia grape, Norton's seedling, Norton's Virginia seedling, and Red River grape; botanically, Vitis nortoni and Vitis cynthiana.
Vitis aestivalis var. aestivalis (Small): Commonly, the summer grape, south western aestivalis, turkey grape, vine wood grape, currant grape, fig leaf grape, palmetto leaved grape, and Simpson's grape; botanically, Vitis rufotomentosa (Small), Vitis diversifolia (Prince), Vitis incisifolia (Davin), Vitis labrusca (Gray), Vitis labrusca var. aestivalis (Regel), Vitis lincecomii var. lactea (Small), Vitis lincecomii var. glauca (Munson), and Vitis linsecomii (Munson), Vitis simpsonii (Munson), Vitis smalliana (Bailey).
Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor (Munson): Commonly, the summer grape, blue grape, northern summer grape, winter grape, two-colored leaf grape, and two-colored leaved vine; botanically, Vitis aestivalis (Darlington), Vitis bicolor (Le Conte non Raf.), and Vitis argentifolia (Munson).
Vitis aestivalis var. lincecumii (Buckley): Commonly, long grape, pinewood grape, post oak grape, big summer grape, sand grape, south western aestivalis, turkey grape, and vine wood grape; botanically, Vitis lincecumii (Buckley), Vitis diversifolia (Prince), Vitis incisifolia (Davin), Vitis labrusca (Gray), Vitis labrusca var. aestivalis (Regel), Vitis lincecomii var. lactea (Small), Vitis lincecomii var. glauca (Munson), and Vitis linsecomii (Munson).
Vitis arizonica (Engelmann): Commonly, the Arizona grape, canon grape, canyon grape, Dawny canon grape, and gulch grape; botanically, Vitis aestivalis (Torrey), Vitis aestivalis (Wright), Vitis arizonensis (Parry), and Vitis riparia (Gray), Vitis treleasei (Munson ex Bailey).
Vitis californica (Bentham): Commonly, the California grape and Pacific grape; botanically, Vitis caribaea (Hook et Arn.) and Vitis girdiana (Munson).
Vitis blancoi (Munson et Comeaux): Commonly, Blanco's grape, Mecican grape; botanically, Vitis tiliifolia (Bailey et Standley)
Vitis cinerea (Engelmann): Commonly, the ashy leaved grape, downy grape, graybark grape, gray black grape, pigeon grape, sweet winter grape, and Wichita grape; botanically, Vitis aestivalis (Palmer), Vitis aestivalis var. cinerea (Engelmann), Vitis aestivalis var. canescens (Engelmann), Vitis aestivalis var. tomento albo asa (Gray), Vitis biformis (Rose), and Vitis cinerea var. rufescens (Planchon).
Vitis cinerea var. baileyana (Munson): Commonly, the graybark grape, bush grape, possum grape, and Virginia grape; botanically, Vitis baileyana (Munson), Vitis virginiana (Munson).
Vitis cinerea var. helleri (Planchon): Commonly, Heller's grape, sugar grape, fall grape, winter grape, sweet grape, Surett grape, Spanish grape, and uva cimmarrona (in Mexico); botanically, Vitis berlandieri (Planchon).
Vitis cinerea var. tomentosa (Planchon et Comeaux): Commonly, woolly-leaf grape, tomentose grape; botanically, Vitis blancoi (Munson), Vitis berlandieri var. tomentosa (Planch. et Bailey).
Vitis girdiana (Munson): Commonly, the desert wild grape, plant lajarre, Southern California grape and valley grape.
Vitis labrusca (Linnaeus): Commonly, the Alexander grape, Alexandria grape, beaconsfield grape, black cape grape, black champion, black fox grape, black grape, buck grape, cape grape, champignon grape, Clifton's Constantia grape, Clifton's lombardia grape, Columbian grape, Constantia grape, early champion grape, Farker's grape, fox grape, frost grape, Madeira of York grape, northern muscadine grape, plum grape, Rothrock grape, Rothrock of Prince grape, Schuykill muscadel, Schuykill muscadine,skunk grape, springmill Constantia grape, swamp grape, Talmam's seedling grape, Tasker's grape, Tolman grape, Vevay grape, Winne grape, and York Lisbon grape; botanically, Vitis blandii (Prince), Vitis canina, Vitis catawba (Hort.), Vitis ferruginga, Vitis labrusca alexandrer,Vitis labrusca champion, Vitis labrusca var. subeden tata (Fernald), Vitis labrusca var. typica (Regel), Vitis latifolia, Vitis luteola, Vitis sylvestris virginiana (Bauh), Vitis taurina (Walter), Vitis vinifera sylvestris americana (Pluk), and Vitis vulpina (Marshall).
Vitis monticola (Buckley): Commonly, the mountain grape, sweet mountain grape, sugar grape, and Champini's grape; botanically, Vitis aestivalis var. monticola (Buckley, Engelmann), Vitis champanii (Planchon), Vitis foexana (Planchon), Vitis montana (Buckley ex Foex), Vitis texana (Munson).
Vitis mustangensis (Buckley): Commonly, the mustang grape, Texas grape, Rio Grande grape; botanically, Vitis candicans (Engelmann), Vitis candicans var. diversa (Bailey), Vitis caribaea var. coriaca (Chapman), and Vitis vinifera var. candicans (Kuntze).
Vitis palmata (Vahl): Commonly, the callosa grape, Caribbean grape, bird grape, Bland's grape, cat grape, Eggert's grape, palmated leaves vine, red grape, and Vigne des Chat; botanically, Vitis monosperma (Michaux), Vitis rubra (Michaux), Vitis riparia var. palmata (Poiret), Vitis vinifera var. palmata (Kuntze), and Vitis virginiana (Poiret).
Vitis popenoei (Fennell): Commonly, the totoloche grape.
Vitis riparia (Michaux): Commonly, the Bermuda vine, frost grape, June grape, maple leaved Canadian grape, Mignonette vine, river grape, riverside grape, scented grape, Uferrebe grape, and Vignes des Battures; botanically, the Vitis amara, Vitis boulderensis, Vitis canadensis aceris Folio (Tournef), Vitis colombina, Vitis concolor, Vitis cordifolia (Darlington), Vitis cordifolia riparia (Torr. et Gray), Vitis cordifolia var. riparia (Gray), Vitis cordifolia var. culpina (Eaton), Vitis dimidiata, Vitis illinoensis (Prince), Vitis incisa jacquelinia, Vitis intermedia (Nuttal), Vitis missouriensis (Prince), Vitis montana, Vitis odoratissima (Donn.), Vitis palmata (Vahl), Vitis populifolia, Vitis riparia var. palmata (Planchon), Vitis riparia var. praecox (Engelmann), Vitis rubra (Desf.), Vitis serotina (Bartram), Vitis tenuifolia (le Conte), Vitis virginiana (Hort.), Vitis virgiana (Poir), Vitis virginiana sylvestris (Parkins), Vitis virginiensis (de Juss), Vitis vulpina (L.), Vitis vulpina var. praecox (Bailey), Vitis vulpina var. riparia (Regel), and Vitis vulpina var. syrticola (Fernald and Weigand).
Vitis rotundifolia (Michaux): Commonly, the American muscadine, big white grape, black grape, bull grape, bullace grape, bullet grape, bullit grape, currant grape, flowers grape, green muscadine, Hickman's grape, muscadine grape, muscadinia rotundifolia Small, mustang grape, Roanoke grape, Scuppernong grape,southern fox grape, warty grape,white grape, white muscadine, white musky grape, and yellow muscadine; botanically, the Vitis acerifolia, Vitis angulata, Vitis callosa, Vitis cordifolia, Vitis hyemalis, Vitis muscadina, Vitis mustangensis, Vitis peltata, Vitis rotundifolia flowers, Vitis rotundifolia scuppernong, Vitis taurina (Bartram), and Vitis verrucosa.
Vitis rotundifolia var. munsoniana (Simpson): Commonly, Munson's grape, bird grape, everbearing grape, Florida grape, little muscadine grape, and mustang grape; botanically, Vitis floridana, Vitis munsoniana, Vitis muscadinia munsoniana (Small), and Vitis peltata.
Vitis rupestris (Scheele): Commonly, the beach grape, bush grape, currant grape, Felsenrebe grape, Ingar grape, July grape, mountain grape, rock grape, sand grape, and sugar grape; botanically, Vitis populi foliis (Lindh.), Vitis rupestris var. dissecta (Eggert), and Vitis vinifera var. rupestris (Kuntze).
Vitis shuttleworthii (House): Commonly, the calloosa grape, Florida grape, leather leaf grape, and Shuttleworth grape; botanically, Vitis candicans (Engelmann), Vitis candicans var. coriaca (Bailey), Vitis caribaea (Chapman), Vitis coriacea shuttleworth, Vitis labrusca var. typica ficifolia (Regel), Vitis sinuata (Mill).
Vitis vulpina (Linnaeus): Commonly, the chicken grape, frost grape, heart-leaved Vitis, possum grape, pungent winter grape, raccoon grape, sour winter grape, and winter grape; botanically, Vitis cordifolia (Michaux), Vitis cordifolia (Lamarck), Vitis amara, Vitis cordifolia (Lam), Vitis cordifolia var. punctata (Weber), Vitis cordifolia var. genuina (Durand), Vitis cordifolia var. foetida (Engelmann), Vitis hyemalis (Dum.), Vitis incisa (Pursh), Vitis pullaria (le Conte), Vitis serotina (Bartram), Vitis virginiana (Hort.), Vitis vulpina (Muhl), Vitis vulpina (Torrey), and Vitis vulpina var. cordifolia (Regel).
The most common of the native Vitis species in North America are the Vitis riparia, Vitis rotundifolia, Vitis labrusca, and Vitis rupestris. Due to their resistance to certain diseases which European grapes of the Vitis vinifera pedigree are more susceptible, Native North American vines have long been used as rootstock for vinifera grafts and for development of hardy hybrids.
Cultivated and hybrid varieties of Vitis rotundifolia that birds sometimes transfer to the wild are the Black Beauty, Black Fry, Bountiful, Carlos, Chief, Cowart, Darlene, Dearing, Delight, Dixie, Doreen, Florida Fry, Fry, Higgins, Hunt, Ison, Janebell, Janet, Jumbo, Loomis, Magnolia, Nesbitt, Noble, Pineapple, Regale, Scuppernong, Sterling, Summit, Supreme, Sweet Jenny, Tara, Tarheel, and Triumph. Some of the cultivated cousins of the hardy fox grape, Vitis labrusca, which are sometimes found in the wild are the Alexander, Catawba, Champion, Concord, Delaware, and Niagara. Nearly all of these produce a purple-black fruit with a bluish bloom, although green and bronze varieties of both are known -- especially the Scuppernong grape of the Carolinas and many of the cultivars. With few notable exceptions (the cultivars listed above, for example), most natives are rarely sweet enough for the table, so one should suspect any really sweet wild grape of being an escaped cultivar or of hybrid parentage.

NATIVE GRAPE RECIPES
Some old and new ways to make that wine....

VITIS -- ONE GENUS OR TWO?
A subtle controversy surrounds the lowly Muscadines....

List of Offered Names for Vitis Species
A list of names offered over the years for Vitis species....

Vitis rotundifolia
muscadines, Scuppernongs and bullace Grapes....

Vitis riparia
The most widely distributed of all North American grapes....

Vitis rupestris
The bush or sand grape makes excellent claret....

Work on this chapter continues.



Got a Favorite Native Grape Recipe?
If you have a favorite (or simply a different) recipe for a native grape wine and want to share it, please send it to Jack Keller for inclusion in this section. You'll be given credit for the recipe and the rest of us will be that much richer for it.
« Last Edit: October 14, 2020, 05:11:23 PM by Francis_Eric »

Francis_Eric

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Re: Termarina rossa Italian Seedless grape from 1840 & cold hardy grapes.
« Reply #5 on: August 11, 2020, 03:54:28 AM »
The Chemical Methyl Anthranilate
is Why grapes like concord  vitis labrusca are called foxy in wine
The flavor is more of a Straw berry like flavor ,
and tuti fruity buble gum like Flavor.



https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Methyl-anthranilate
Maybe some of this is true
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methyl_anthranilate.

More in detail
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/6/10980
Copied from above
 Hence, the first published studies on the volatile compounds of interspecific hybrids mostly focused on the so-called “foxy” compounds such as methyl anthranilate, furaneol (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-3-furanone), and o-aminoacetophenone.
« Last Edit: August 11, 2020, 04:08:59 AM by Francis_Eric »

Francis_Eric

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Re: 1840 Seedless grape 1840 wine grapes & cold hardy grapes.
« Reply #6 on: August 11, 2020, 06:44:34 AM »
I was reading Smithonian , several months ago and it had a article about people trying to bring back old lost Israel Grapes ,
 what might have been drank from way back in the past.

I think it would be cool to get some of these Old vines, and try crossing them with America's
I remember The late  Lon J. Rombough saying the easiest way to make a grape cross or Hybrid
 is planting a Female that needs pollination from a male or Hermaphrodite , every seed will be a cross. (open pollinated seed)

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/wines-israel-negev-desert-represent-future-viticulture-180974590/

Also Found this On Wine maker Magazine

Instead of Chasing Trends, These French Winemakers are Reviving Rare, Native Grapes

https://www.winemag.com/2020/03/17/southwest-france-rare-native-wine-grapes/

I remember The late  Lon J. Rombough saying the easiest way to make a grape hybrid

Francis_Eric

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SinCe I am bringing up the Different groupings og grapes This is a good Link
(See Link I cannot Paste the Groupings of the European Vitis Vinifera Grapes>)
(will  come out bad like the Above copy/pasted TEXT)

https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/20321000/VitisPage/Grape.pdf

 Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated
grape, Vitis vinifera L.

Summary
222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed
for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were
detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among
accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical
eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. French cultivars
appeared to be distinct and showed close affinity to the wild progenitor, ssp. sylvestris from
south-western France (Pyrenees) and Tunisia, probably reflecting the origin and domestication
history of many of the old wine cultivars from France. There was appreciable level of differentiation
between table and wine grape cultivars, and the Muscat types were somewhat distinct within the
wine grapes. Contingency x2 analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies among
groups at all loci. The observed heterozygosities for different groups ranged from 0.
625 to 0.
9 with
an overall average of 0.
771. Genetic relationships among groups suggested hierarchical
differentiation within cultivated grape. The gene diversity analysis indicated narrow divergence
among groups and that most variation was found within groups (y85%). Partitioning of diversity
suggested that the remaining variation is somewhat structured hierarchically at different levels
of differentiation. The overall organization of genetic diversity suggests that the germplasm of
cultivated grape represents a single complex gene pool and that its structure is determined by
strong artificial selection and a vegetative mode of reproduction.
1. Introduction
Cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L., is the sole European
representative of the genus Vitis L., a large member of
Vitaceae with y60 species (Galet, 1988). Two-thirds
of these species are native to North America and onethird is distributed over central and east Asia. The
cultivated grape is believed to have been domesticated
around 4000 BC from a perennial wild grape originally
classified as V. sylvestris C.C. Gmelin occurring from
north-eastern Afghanistan to the southern borders of
the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (Zohary & SpiegelRoy, 1975; Ketsa & Verheij, 1992). However, based
on a recent archaeological finding in the Zagros
mountains of Iran, McGovern et al. (1996) suggested
5400–5000 BC as the probable period of domestication
of the grape.
Currently, most botanists regard the wild ancestral
grape V. sylvestris as the primitive form of the cultivated grape because of the close morphological resemblance and free gene flow between them (Heywood &
Zohary, 1991) and consequently have reduced its taxonomic status to subspecies level within the V. vinifera
crop complex (Levadoux, 1956). The wild grapes are
predominantly forest climbers and occur in disjunct
populations from the Atlantic coast to Tadzhikistan
and the western Himalayas (Zohary & Hopf, 1993).
They occasionally come into contact with cultivated



_-----------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------
Table 1. Grape germplasm accessions included in the study (organized into 16 groups as illustrated in Fig. 1).
Parentheses list first the grape type (T, table ; W, wine ; TW, table/wine dual ; S, sylvestris), then the country
(abbreviated according to the ISO3166 code ; ? represents unknown origin) and finally the number of samples assayed


(SEE Link)
« Last Edit: August 17, 2020, 04:23:43 PM by Francis_Eric »

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Re: 1840 Seedless grape 1840 wine grapes & cold hardy grapes.
« Reply #8 on: August 17, 2020, 05:05:07 PM »
It has been a while since I've read up on it , but I have had some breeding idea's , for American Wine grapes
(Hybrids of Our native grapes , with Europe's  Vitis  vinifera)
My Idea's Could be cleared up by checking my emails, but It goes something like this

Since Wild grapes are  (Vitis vinifera Variation )Sylvestris , (spelling)
and the more cultivated Section Is (V. vinifera VAR.) Pontica used more in table grapes

The wine grapes Over there (V. vinifera Var.)Occidentalis A Mix of Wild, and Table.

Instead of already Using European Section of grape Occidentalis
with both WIld, and table Var. Pontica genes

Cut out the Table, and use the Wild (sylvstris )  with ours

OR
USe the European Vitis Vinifera  (var.) Pontica (table) , and use our Wild grapes

(I have a couple secrets , to my self too) (kind of try to explain below.
 Although Intuitive , and not following what is passed around online
I may have found something that is looked down at according to common knowledge online
That I will keep to myself
  , and found something Useful ,
but could be wrong since wine flavors change as they Age ,
 but at least good for Table grapes I believe so. (I mean it is out there )

Off that topic
I will say this though Always like to see some wild types,
 and see if they have any interesting wine flavors
On grape was drying out into dust, and had a nice taste of Chocolate in the wine.

usirius

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Re: 1840 Seedless grape 1840 wine grapes & cold hardy grapes.
« Reply #9 on: August 27, 2020, 02:44:50 PM »
Back to the vitis discussion:
The very rare wild growing firm of the European grape vines  Vitis sylvestris ssp. sylvestris (male) is growing on my land if anyone like to breed Vitis riparia or other anerican native Vitis with pollen from it I can cut some scions in winter, or send pollen when it is flowering again.

It has been a while since I've read up on it , but I have had some breeding idea's , for American Wine grapes
(Hybrids of Our native grapes , with Europe's  Vitis  vinifera)
My Idea's Could be cleared up by checking my emails, but It goes something like this

Since Wild grapes are  (Vitis vinifera Variation )Sylvestris , (spelling)
and the more cultivated Section Is (V. vinifera VAR.) Pontica used more in table grapes

The wine grapes Over there (V. vinifera Var.)Occidentalis A Mix of Wild, and Table.

Instead of already Using European Section of grape Occidentalis
with both WIld, and table Var. Pontica genes

Cut out the Table, and use the Wild (sylvstris )  with ours

OR
USe the European Vitis Vinifera  (var.) Pontica (table) , and use our Wild grapes

(I have a couple secrets , to my self too) (kind of try to explain below.
 Although Intuitive , and not following what is passed around online
I may have found something that is looked down at according to common knowledge online
That I will keep to myself
  , and found something Useful ,
but could be wrong since wine flavors change as they Age ,
 but at least good for Table grapes I believe so. (I mean it is out there )

Off that topic
I will say this though Always like to see some wild types,
 and see if they have any interesting wine flavors
On grape was drying out into dust, and had a nice taste of Chocolate in the wine.
„May your choices reflect your hopes, not your fears.“ N. Mandela

 

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