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Topics - kumin

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Cold Hardy Citrus / Precocity and tree caliper
« on: January 21, 2023, 03:44:41 PM »
Genetics is an obvious factor involved in determining first flowering and fruiting of seedling trees. Another likely factor is the amount of resources the seedling has to utilize to establish trunk stiffening and thickening in order to brace against wind stresses. Trees secured against framework such as trellises and espaliers don't need to allocate as many resources towards trunk and limb framework. Seedlings within an enclosure with a poly or glass skin are also free to transition more quickly to a reproductive phase change. My trees grown outdoors are invariably shorter as well as stockier with thicker trunks. The trees within the high tunnel are lankier and taller. Almost all of my "precocious" trees were located within the cold frame structure .

Video in monotone Spanish showing plate grafting, using as many as 5 buds at a time. Rather wasteful of buds, but increases the chances of success. The use of white paint is to semi-permanently indicate the location of the graft.
This procedure is probably only practical for top working established Citrus, not seedling rootstock. I've used a simpler form of this successfully.

Citrus General Discussion / Donaldson Orange - New Hope for HLB?
« on: August 18, 2022, 03:30:32 PM »

There appears to be a lot of excitement with this find. The slow meticulous methodology of the past seems to be supplanted with a sense of urgency. Hopefully the orange groves can be salvaged before they disappear as construction building lots. It has always pained me to see prime agricultural land disappear under asphalt and concrete.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Poncirus perfect flowers vs. staminate flowers
« on: April 15, 2022, 07:29:05 PM »
In past experience I noticed that the first flowers on Poncirus and Poncirus hybrid seedlings tend to be skewed towards staminate flowers, rather than perfect flowers. This is quite evident in 6 trees blooming for the first time this Spring.

However, as I'm presently pollinating about a hundred Poncirus flowers with Meyer lemon pollen it's very apparent there's a pattern to the distribution of perfect and staminate flowers on mature Poncirus. On each flowering twig the first 3, or so flowers at the outer end of the twig are perfect (having both anthers and pistils). The remaining flowers farther back on the twig are almost all staminate (anthers only).

Additionally, the flowers in the intermediate position often show partially developed pistils.
Although I was aware of the two types of flowers previously, I never noticed that the flower position had such a profound influence on the development of flower type. I'm curious if this applies to other Citrus types.

Staminate flower on the right with anthers about a day before dehiscence. Pistil is undeveloped and non-functional. The flower on the left is perfect (complete).

Perfect flower showing prominent pistil, as well as anthers.

It's probably unnecessary to mention that flowers without pistils can provide pollen, but have no chance of developing into fruit themselves.

This is a hour long video showcasing a very large collection of cold hardy Citrus. Unfortunately, it's in French, the French subtitles assist in comprehension, but there are some errors in the captioning. I have abysmal comprehension of spoken French, a bit better with written French.

Selecting English subtitles gives a rough approximation of the content.
I'd be interested in seeing accurate English subtitles for this video.

This video serves as an introduction to a recently published book (in French).

Cold Hardy Citrus / Bishop Segentrandarins Zygotic vs. Nucellar
« on: November 11, 2021, 11:05:57 AM »
Early in 2021 I planted a number of Bishop segentrandarin seeds. I lost some due to overheating, but had 5 surviving seedlings. After considerable neglect, these were collected today and moved into the cold frame. HardyVermont had feared they were largely nucellar. I did notice some variability early on, but was surprised today, when it appears most, if not all, are clearly zygotic seedlings. The largest one is predominately monofoliate, as is a second smaller seedling. All differ from each other in frost resistance, leaf shape, etc.

I found Bishop to quite palatable once diluted. It's acidic, yet sweet. Poncirus tastes are minor and fleeting, it's the best tasting Poncirus hybrid I've tasted (I haven't tasted many). To this point my experiences have been much more seedling related, than fruit related, I hope that changes shortly!

Cold Hardy Citrus / Collins Poncirus processing
« on: October 31, 2021, 05:11:34 AM »
I've just juiced a batch of Poncirus fruits from a tree sourced from Major Collins about 25 years ago. His comment was that the fruit were larger and had a better pulp to seed ratio than common Poncirus.

This American persimmon is the result of 200 American persimmon seedling rootstocks that were abandoned due to graft incompatibilities with D Kali. One of the female trees is a very prolific bearer of oblate fruit. Unlike the remainder of the trees, this selection retains the fruit quite well, even while ripening, allowing many of the fruit to be eaten directly from the tree, upon softening. A few actually dry on the tree and remain on during the Winter.

I'm considering propagating a few trees in the Spring.

A dried fruit left over from last Autumn.

The tree is shorter than the other trees, about one half the height.

A view of this year's fruit set.

Another view of the fruit set at present.

 Bark flap graft: Flying Dragon on Poncirus.

Bark flap graft: Dragon Lime on Poncirus.

Bark flap graft: Bishop Citrandarin on Poncirus.

Cleft graft: Flying Dragon on Poncirus.

The Flying Dragon grafts had a high percentage of "takes" and are growing quite well.

Citrus General Discussion / LSU Ag Citrus Freeze Damage Video
« on: March 25, 2021, 11:58:38 AM »
Informative video concerning preparing Citrus prior to a freeze event, and assessing post-freeze damage. Applicable for standard Citrus, as well as cold hardy Citrus.

Cold Hardy Citrus / New Jersey Yuzu Growers
« on: January 31, 2021, 10:35:53 AM »
Interesting video on indoor/outdoor semi-commercial Yuzu growers in New Jersey. The daughter has put her new skills to good use.

I'm considering top grafting Kaffir Lime onto 6-8 year old Poncirus trees in the late Spring. This would only be for the duration of the season, knowing that Fall temperatures would quickly kill them off.
Does anyone have experience doing this and was the resulting growth worth the effort? If successful, I may be eating a lot of Thai food next Summer!

An unnamed trifoliate hybrid described, with some pluses and several minuses. It appears to be rather hardy, with juicy flesh and modest seed count. The reviewer wasn't entirely favorably impressed by the trifoliate flavors.


I actually thought it had been sequenced earlier. Now we need to harness it's deciduous and cold hardy properties.

Citrus General Discussion / History of Temple tangor
« on: September 26, 2020, 06:29:43 AM »
A favorite Citrus in my youth. Sweet, juicy and well colored. I don't recall it having a particularly long storage life off the tree.
The seeds are 100% zygotic and abundant in the standard cultivar.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Nearly thornless Conestoga segentrange
« on: July 26, 2020, 09:34:32 AM »
Conestoga #002, nearly thornless selection. Nice to see after dealing with Poncirus.

Cold Hardy Citrus / Spaneet citrange?
« on: May 01, 2020, 08:09:17 PM »
Is anyone familiar with Spaneet citrange? The descriptions given are:
1. Deep orange rind color
2. Nearly seedless
3. Very juicy
4. Furrowed at pistol end
5. Size small - similar to Rusk
6. Very vigorous and productive
7. Cold hardy
Sounds very interesting, especially in regards to color, juiciness, vigor and productivity.
French translations tend to use the word "rustique" (rustic) to convey "hardiness".

Sources: Free >fr>trifoliates
and  les cultivars de citranges (-13C)

Citrus General Discussion / New rootstock de-thorning tool.
« on: March 20, 2020, 03:28:30 PM »
Repurposed dog nail clippers works just fine for thorn removal on 400 Poncirus yearling rootstocks. Unlike the dog, the seedlings don't squirm in the process!

Cold Hardy Citrus / Poncirus+ early bud break
« on: March 09, 2020, 06:43:54 AM »
There's been at least one post questioning Poncirus+ winter hardiness. Due to experiencing a very mild winter, I can't really address it's ultimate winter hardiness, except noticing that they're the only trees showing bud-break this early. None of the citranges, other Poncirus, TaiTri, 5* citrumelo, Ichangquat, etc. are showing bud-break. Perhaps this early loss of dormancy contributes to decreased hardiness.
It remains to be seen whether the remainder of the selections will follow within days, or will remain dormant for several additional weeks.

Citrus General Discussion / Paired thorns on F2 citrange
« on: February 03, 2020, 10:51:44 AM »
I've noticed a twig with 3 consecutive sets of paired thorns on a F2 citrange specimen. Some distant Citrus relatives are armed with paired thorns,(Hesperethusa crenulata on occasion) I'm not certain how common this feature is among Citrus. Hesperethusa's compound leaves have a resemblance to Poncirus, although fruits and bark are quite different.

I see there's an additional pair at the base of the scion.

Citrus General Discussion / South African Citrus Educational Videos
« on: December 27, 2019, 12:21:15 PM »
A good deal of information as it relates to South African Citrus Propagation and Cultivation practices. From a commercial production perspective. A lot of material to digest.

Cold Hardy Citrus / TaiTri vs 5* deciduousness and hardiness
« on: December 13, 2019, 03:47:19 PM »
Is anyone familiar with both TiaTri citrandarin and 5* citrumelo in respect to their winter hardiness? The first indications I see are that TaiTri shows a bit of deciduousness while I see none in the 5* at this point.  Some of my segentrages show appreciable deciduous behavior, others don't. TaiTri also made less late growth. Which has shown better cold resistance?

Citrus General Discussion / 7 on 1 inverted bud grafts
« on: August 29, 2019, 12:22:41 PM »
Here is a photo of a bud graft of 7 individual scions onto 1 Poncirus rootstock. All 7 buds "took", and 4 quickly pushed new growth. A 5th bud began to push in the last week. 2 buds remain dormant at this time. They were budded using inverted T-buds. I had done several hundred T-buds in the past, mostly on Prunus cultivars. These were the first inverted T-buds I did and they did great.

Photos of a simple graft for joining a small diameter scion with a range of similar or larger diameter actively growing rootstocks. These have worked very well for me in the past.

Selected Poncirus rootstock.

Scion donor F2 citrange plant.

Scion severed from donor.

Epidermis shaved off of scion side 1.

Epidermis shaved off of scion side 2.

Shallow downward cut on rootstock - avoid cutting into wood.

Scion ready for insertion. Leaf area has been reduced to 25-30% to reduce transpiration.

Scion fitted for insertion.

Graft wrapped with parafilm.

Completed graft showing flush of growth present at time of grafting.

An example of this type of graft after 18 days. This graft will be re-wrapped until healing is complete.

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