Author Topic: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed  (Read 2686 times)

a_Vivaldi

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Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« on: May 25, 2023, 04:56:15 PM »
Note: %zygotic and hardiness values are not absolute. Zygotic and nucellar seedlings are strongly influenced by the pollen donor and may be influenced by environmental variables as well. Hardiness is even more variable. Hardiness is affected by factors such as duration of the cold event, rootstock, humidity, windspeed, exposure, solar radiation, etc. Winter hardiness is also highly dependent on full dormancy and properly hardened off plant material. Periods of warmth preceding a freeze can drastically reduce cold hardiness, and less mature plant material is considerably more susceptible to damage. Lastly, the values below assume mature plants, juvenile or otherwise small plants are not as hardy. For climates, as a rule of thumb, plants the southeast USA are more prone to not being fully dormant, but freezes are generally short duration, often only a few hours, so the absolute lows that plants will survive may be several degrees colder than in other climates, whereas plants in the pacific northwest and in Europe are more likely to be properly dormant, but cold events generally last longer and night to day temperatures might not be much different. In both climates, plants can easily be killed by temperatures above their technical cold hardiness limit, in the southeast this is often due to plants not fully entering or having broken dormancy prior to a freeze, and in the PNW and Europe due to freezing temperatures lasting for extended periods of time (pretty much any edible citrus plants will be damaged or killed  by four or five days continuously below 30 F, or by three weeks of sunny 70 F weather followed by a night of 30 F).

   Variety      % zygotic    Cold hardiness      Parentage    source(s)    
   1584      10-20                     
   5*      Low?      5 10 F               
   54-1-2      High      Similar to Satsumas            Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   African Shaddock x Poncitrus      Low                     
   Benton Citrange      2                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Bishop Citrandarin      High?      5 F      US-852         
   C-146      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   C-22 bitters      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   C-35      10-20      Less hardy than other citranges            https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   C-54 Carpenter      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   C-57 Furr      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Calamandarin            15 F            https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=19167.0   
   Calamondin      Low                  http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   Carrizo      0-10            Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   Changsha      Low      6 - 10 F      c. reticulata      http://www.mckenzie-farms.com/photo.htm, http://citrusgrowersstatic.chez.com/web/viewtopic843e.php, Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   CiClem 10            10 F               
   Citron      100      Upper twenties at best            http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   citrus glauca      100      15 - 20 F               
   Citrus maxima      100      25 F               
   Clementine      100      20 F               
   Clem-Yuz 2-2            8 - 10 F               
   ClemYuz 3-3            10 - 12 F      Clementine x Yuzu         
   Cleopatra mandarin      0-1            C. reticulata      https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Dancy Mandarin      Low      20 - 25 F            Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   Dimicelli      Low      5 - 10 F               
   Dunstan      Low      0F?      trifoliata × paradisi       https://jcra.ncsu.edu/horticulture/our-plants/results-by-name-serial-number.php?serial=117972   
   Ellendale      100      20 F               
   Eremolemon      Low      13 - 20 F      c. glauca x Meyer or c. glauca x paradisii      http://hardycitrus.blogspot.com/2014/01/cold-hardiness-table_13.html   
   Flying dragon      10 - 50      -15 F -5F             https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Freemont      37            c. reticulata      https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285650439_Identification_of_Zygotic_and_Nucellar_Individuals_Produced_from_Several_Citrus_Crosses_Using_SSRs_Markers/fulltext/57bd7a8e08ae37ee394b9c20/Identification-of-Zygotic-and-Nucellar-Individuals-Produced-from-Several-Citrus-Crosses-Using-SSRs-Markers.pdf   
   Glen citrangedin            10 F               
   Goutou      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Ichange lemon      Low      15 - 20 F            http://www.mckenzie-farms.com/photo.htm   
   Ichange Papeda      100      0 - 5 F      c. ichangensis         
   Ichangquat 6-7-2      100      5 F               
   Imperial      90            c. reticulata      https://www.publish.csiro.au/an/EA9960731   
   Juanita Tangerine            10 F            https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=19167.0   
   Keraji      High?      6 - 15 F      c. reticulata      http://citrusgrowersstatic.chez.com/web/viewtopice38a.php, http://citrusgrowersstatic.chez.com/web/viewtopic843e.php   
   Kinkoji      14      15 F      C. reticulata      https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html, http://www.mckenzie-farms.com/photo.htm   
   Kishu      Low      25-32 F      c. reticulata      https://madisoncitrusnursery.com, http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#monotypes, http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   Kuharske      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Meiwa Kumquat      Low      10 - 15 F      c. japonica         
   Meyer Lemon      100      18 - 22 F      c. limonia x c reticulata      http://www.agrumes-passion.com/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=301&start=   
   Miyagawa      Low            c. reticulata      https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285650439_Identification_of_Zygotic_and_Nucellar_Individuals_Produced_from_Several_Citrus_Crosses_Using_SSRs_Markers/fulltext/57bd7a8e08ae37ee394b9c20/Identification-of-Zygotic-and-Nucellar-Individuals-Produced-from-Several-Citrus-Crosses-Using-SSRs-Markers.pdf   
   Morton Citrange      Low      5 F            https://hardycitrus.blogspot.com/2013/12/morton-citrange.html   
   Nagami Kumquat      High            c. japonica         
   Nansho Daidai      30      5 - 10 F      c. taiwanica      https://hardycitrus.blogspot.com   
   New Zealand Grapefruit/Poorman orange      100                     
   New Zealand Lemonaid            16 F               
   Nippon Orangequat      Low      10-12 F      Meiwa kumquat x satsuma         
   Owari and similar satsumas      Low      12-15 F      c. reticulata      http://www.mckenzie-farms.com/photo.htm   
   Palestine lime      Low                  http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   Prague Citsuma      NA      1 F            https://hardycitrus.blogspot.com/2020/02/prague-citsuma.html   
   Procimequat      Low                     
   Rangpur lime      Low      15-20 F      c. limonia x c reticulata      http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   Robinson      31      20 - 25 F      c. reticulata      https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285650439_Identification_of_Zygotic_and_Nucellar_Individuals_Produced_from_Several_Citrus_Crosses_Using_SSRs_Markers/fulltext/57bd7a8e08ae37ee394b9c20/Identification-of-Zygotic-and-Nucellar-Individuals-Produced-from-Several-Citrus-Crosses-Using-SSRs-Markers.pdf, Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   Rough lemon      10-20      Mid to upper twenties            https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Rusk citrange      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Sacaton Citrumelo      50                     
   SanCitChange #10 Roundleaf            10?      Changsha x Sanford citrange      https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=19167.0   
   Sandford Curafora      Moderate      10 - 17 F      F2 Sandford Citrange         
   Seville sour orange      Low      12-15 F      c. aurantium      https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=19167.0   
   Shekwasha mandarin      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Smooth Flat Seville      59      15 F      c. aurantium      https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Sudachi      Low      15 F            https://madisoncitrusnursery.com   
   Sun Chu Sha mandarin      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Sunquat            15 F      Meiwa kumquat x clementine         
   Sweet Oranges      Low      20 - 25            http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   Swingle      10-20      10 F      Citrus paradisi × P. trifoliata      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/   
   Taitri            0 - 5 F      c. taiwanica x p. trifoliata      http://hardycitrus.blogspot.com/2014/01/cold-hardiness-table_13.html   
   Temple Tangor      100      Upper twenties at best               
   Thomasville      Low      5 - 10 F      Willits citrange x nagami kumquat         
   Thomasville citrangequant      Low      5 - 10 F            http://www.mckenzie-farms.com/photo.htm   
   Trifoliate orange      10-20      -15 F            https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   True grapefruits      0      20-25 F            http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   True lemons      0      Upper twenties at best            http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   True limes      0      Upper twenties at best            http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#embryony   
   UFR-1      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-15      50-90                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-16      50-90                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-17      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-2      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-4      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-5      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   UFR-6      10-20            Citrus reticulata ‘Changsha’ × P. trifoliata ‘English Large’      https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html, https://www.houzz.com/discussions/5002069/us-852-hardy-citrandarin   
   Ugli      100      Upper twenties at best               
   Umatillo      High      Upper twenties at best            Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   US SuperSour1      100            C. grandis ‘Hirado Buntan sdlg’ × C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   US SuperSour2      100            P. trifoliata × (Citrus aurantium × Citrus ichangensis)      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/   
   US-119            15 F      (Poncirus trifoliate x Citrus paradisi)xCitrus sinensis         
   US-1279      100      More hardy than US-1281      C. reticulata ‘Changsha’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/, https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=30891.475   
   US-1281      100            C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/   
   US-1282      100      Less hardy than US-1281      C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/, https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=30891.475   
   US-1283      0-10            C. reticulata ‘Ninkat’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   US-1284      0-10      5 F      C. reticulata ‘Ninkat’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/, https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=43545.0   
   US-1516      30-40            C. grandis ‘African’ × P. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   US-802      0-10            Citrus grandis ‘Siamese’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   US-812      10-20            C. reticulata ‘Sunki’ × P. trifoliata ‘Benecke’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   US-852      40-70      5-10 F      Citrus reticulata ‘Changsha’ × P. trifoliata ‘English Large’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/rootstock-cultivars/   
   US-897      0-10      Less hardy than swingle      C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × P. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon'      https://citrusrootstocks.org/, https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=45140.0   
   US-942      0-10            C. reticulata ‘Sunki’ × P. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’      https://citrusrootstocks.org/   
   Ventura lemandarin      Low?      11 F            https://hardycitrus.blogspot.com   
   Volkamer lemon      2      Poor            https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Wheeny Grapefruit      100                     
   Wilking      100      20 F               
   x-639      10-20                  https://crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/citrus_rootstock/tables.html   
   Yuzu      Low      10-15 F            http://www.mckenzie-farms.com/photo.htm, http://citruspages.free.fr/classification.php#monotypes   
   Yuzuquat            7 - 10 F      Yuzu x Nagami kumquat      http://hardycitrus.blogspot.com/2014/01/cold-hardiness-table_13.html   
« Last Edit: June 07, 2023, 02:16:03 PM by a_Vivaldi »

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #1 on: May 25, 2023, 04:57:19 PM »
Corrections and additions highly encouraged.

caladri

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #2 on: May 25, 2023, 05:09:35 PM »
Throwing this into a shared Google Sheet or an online Excel spreadsheet would probably be super useful!

Ilya11

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #3 on: May 25, 2023, 05:37:00 PM »
In my experience the proportion of zygotic seeds in partially nucellar varieties also depends  on the pollinizator.
Best regards,
                       Ilya

orangedays

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #4 on: May 25, 2023, 05:56:30 PM »
It would be nice for the forum to build a chart like this. It would be super useful. One thing that I wonder when people talk about cold hardy. What does cold hardy mean to them? No damage, some damage, roots survived and regrew?  From what I read there is also difference in estimates of cold  hardiness in different environments. Europe, East vs West US etc. So you may want an additional column for different geographic regions, but that might thin out the data too much.

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #5 on: May 25, 2023, 06:59:50 PM »
In my experience the proportion of zygotic seeds in partially nucellar varieties also depends  on the pollinizator.

Yes, and the literature supports this too. Lots of papers I've seen mention different rates for different pollen parents, and a few discuss temperature and other environmental variables making a difference as well. However, the overall range doesn't seem too highly affected. A mostly nucellar variety is going to be mostly nucellar, etc.

That degree of nuance is good to know, but compiling it into a reference would be exceptionally difficult, especially since it's poorly studied. Just getting nucellar/zygotic and approximate cold hardiness is hard enough...

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #6 on: May 25, 2023, 07:01:29 PM »
Throwing this into a shared Google Sheet or an online Excel spreadsheet would probably be super useful!

That was my intention, but my Google drive is just about full and I don't want to pay for more storage. Feel free to copy my table though, it's hardly my data anyway. : )

vnomonee

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #7 on: May 25, 2023, 07:19:54 PM »
taitri has survived in my zone 7a for 3 winters, lowest being 1F

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #8 on: May 25, 2023, 07:26:26 PM »
Updated. Thanks!

tedburn

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #9 on: May 26, 2023, 12:30:59 AM »
Interesting table, though we all know, that the datas can only show a rough estimate due to complex influences of coldhardiness, as rootstock, ..... From my experience some very cold hardy citrus as Citrumelo x Yuzu, Chimera Prag, Bloomsweet Pomelo, 5* Citrumelo and Morton Citrange are still missing.
Morton ( on Poncirus) and Chimera Prag ( survived in my region -16 °C with fleece protection (Morton on FA 5 with 30% twig damage). The others -13 ° C also as a 1 year old graft of Clem yuz 2-2 on Poncirus.

pagnr

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #10 on: May 26, 2023, 04:33:34 AM »
It might be useful to present the info in various ways, like increasing cold hardiness, as well as % zygotic seed in different tables ( or a search criteria ).

BorisR

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #11 on: May 26, 2023, 03:43:24 PM »
I have a similar table, but I noted the zigotic not as a percentage, but as "weak-medium-strong". When I have time, I will compare the data.

mikkel

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #12 on: May 26, 2023, 05:09:46 PM »
In my experience the proportion of zygotic seeds in partially nucellar varieties also depends  on the pollinizator.
Ichang Papeda as pollen donor often leads to zygotic offspring, at least in my experience.

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #13 on: May 29, 2023, 03:17:55 PM »
Interesting table, though we all know, that the datas can only show a rough estimate due to complex influences of coldhardiness, as rootstock, ..... From my experience some very cold hardy citrus as Citrumelo x Yuzu, Chimera Prag, Bloomsweet Pomelo, 5* Citrumelo and Morton Citrange are still missing.
Morton ( on Poncirus) and Chimera Prag ( survived in my region -16 °C with fleece protection (Morton on FA 5 with 30% twig damage). The others -13 ° C also as a 1 year old graft of Clem yuz 2-2 on Poncirus.

Added

Perplexed

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #14 on: May 29, 2023, 04:17:39 PM »
-
« Last Edit: May 30, 2023, 01:40:47 PM by Perplexed »

hardyvermont

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #15 on: May 29, 2023, 04:55:01 PM »
Thank you for creating this resource. 

10 Degree Tangerine 3-3 died at 9 F. -12.8 C
10 Degree Tangerine 2-2 survived
CiClem 10 is approximately as hardy as 2-2
Curafora barely survived
« Last Edit: May 29, 2023, 05:07:22 PM by hardyvermont »

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #16 on: May 29, 2023, 08:09:49 PM »
Thank you for creating this resource. 

10 Degree Tangerine 3-3 died at 9 F. -12.8 C
10 Degree Tangerine 2-2 survived
CiClem 10 is approximately as hardy as 2-2
Curafora barely survived

Thanks! I'll get those added once I'm back at my computer. Any idea on if any of them give much zygotic seed?

Part of my motivation here is the fact that precious few cold hardy citrus also produce mostly zygotic seeds. There are a lot of hardy citrus, but almost all of them are basically dead ends when it comes to breeding. Identifying the ones that are both cold hardy and zygotic, and creating a reference for them, is something I've noticed is weirdly lacking on the forum and on the internet in general.

hardyvermont

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #17 on: May 29, 2023, 09:58:09 PM »
Thank you for creating this resource. 

10 Degree Tangerine 3-3 died at 9 F. -12.8 C
10 Degree Tangerine 2-2 survived
CiClem 10 is approximately as hardy as 2-2
Curafora barely survived

Thanks! I'll get those added once I'm back at my computer. Any idea on if any of them give much zygotic seed?

Part of my motivation here is the fact that precious few cold hardy citrus also produce mostly zygotic seeds. There are a lot of hardy citrus, but almost all of them are basically dead ends when it comes to breeding. Identifying the ones that are both cold hardy and zygotic, and creating a reference for them, is something I've noticed is weirdly lacking on the forum and on the internet in general.
3-3 and Curafora made trifoliate leaves after being crossed with poncirus.  No idea how zygotic.  The other two have never born fruit.

Walt

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #18 on: May 30, 2023, 02:46:55 AM »
Those with low % zygotic are not dead ends if they make normal pollen.  But this list will help people choose seed parents,

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #19 on: June 07, 2023, 10:27:02 AM »
Those with low % zygotic are not dead ends if they make normal pollen.  But this list will help people choose seed parents,

Yeah, dead end is a bit too harsh. But it is a pretty significant issue imho. Given how dominant the trait is, even using highly nucellar varieties as pollen parents will mean that the resulting hybrids will likely also have nucellar seedlings. I considered putting in a column about whether the highly nucellar varieties may be heterozygous or homozygous with regards to that trait, but I've not seen enough papers actually saying nucellar seedlings is just a classic mendelian trait so I'm not confident in putting that kind of information out there, let alone good sources on which highly nucellar varieties are hetero/homozygous. Heck, just cold-hardiness and %zygotic is already pretty messy...

Ilya11

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #20 on: June 07, 2023, 11:28:00 AM »
It is also very important to know if parent plants are parthenogenetic (giving fruits without pollination), self-compatible or belonging to the particular type of pollen compatibility.
Best regards,
                       Ilya

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #21 on: June 07, 2023, 02:29:17 PM »
I was under the impression that most citrus were at least weakly parthenogenic, with just a few notable exceptions? Of course, I'm no expert)
If there is a lot of variability, do you know of good places to find that information? Digging through old forum posts and papers from the 70s gets old.

Ilya11

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #22 on: June 07, 2023, 03:13:33 PM »
There is a rich literature on these two subjects
link
link
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« Last Edit: June 07, 2023, 05:31:40 PM by Ilya11 »
Best regards,
                       Ilya

a_Vivaldi

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #23 on: June 07, 2023, 04:06:06 PM »
Thank Ilya, if I can pull together enough data from the literature for the varieties I've got in the table I'll definitely include columns for this.

Lauta_hibrid

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Re: Table of citrus cold hardiness and %zygotic seed
« Reply #24 on: January 27, 2024, 07:43:54 PM »
There is something I have doubts about, I have something that looks like Orangequat but since the varieties here may have escaped from a collection and are not registered, I don't know whether to confirm their real origin.  My Orangequat is large, mostly oval although it also produces round fruit and its leaves are intermediate between satsuma and kumquat.  The issue is that it is 100% monoembryonic and 100% cogotic in my tests with two fruits crossed with lemon.  It doesn't mention it in the table, will it be the same variety?  Does anyone have it?  (by the way I made a still young hybrid of okitsu x nagami and now I pollinated it with meiwa to achieve a giant and sweet kumquat 😅)

 

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