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Messages - SoCal2warm

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1
An update: The Karp's Sweet has produced several little fruit druplets, but I fear they may drop off.
That type of thing seems to often happen when the tree does not have enough vigor due to lack of previous winter chill.

Meanwhile the Passe Crassane tree seems to be growing very well in its zone 10 climate, which I feel is notable for a European pear.

2
The two Ichang papeda plants have begun putting out new leaf growth


Here is the Bloomsweet. It is looking good, leaves are a very healthy green color and it has recently grown out a big new branch, which grew out very rapidly. In the background you can also see a Yuzu plant (also doing well, grafted on rootstock) and the edge of a special hardy Parfianka hardy pomegranate plant.


The Sudachi put out three little blossoms, and you can see what looks like the beginnings of a little fruit druplet on one of them.
overall the Sudachi looks a little ragged, like it is not growing the most vigorously or putting out the most growth, but the color of the leaves look reasonably healthy.


The Keraji (on grafted rootstock) has put out an abundance of blossoms, despite the plant not being that big, and it looks like it is doing very well.

The flowers right now I would say smell like orange blossoms mixed with Satsuma mandarin blossoms and regular mandarin blossoms.

The special Ichangquat seedling (which I suspect may be a hybrid with citrumelo) is also starting to put out a flush of new leaf growth.


pictures taken June 12, 2021

3
Recipes / Re: Uses for unripe mangoes?
« on: June 11, 2021, 08:52:42 PM »
I tend to prefer mangoes that are a little more on the unripe side. Makes a great mango salsa to spread on top of grilled fresh fish.

4
Can I cut citrus leafminer damaged leaves?
You can cut them off, if there are not too many of them. But keep in mind you will probably still have to give the tree a spray treatment.

It's debatable whether cutting off the leaves will really help. The deformed leaves can still be somewhat functional for the tree, but they may contain larvae inside of the leaves. The larva will hatch out of the leaves in about 25 to 30 days, and if the leaves have been saturated in spinosad spray at the time they emerge out, they should die. So there is not necessarily a need to remove the leaf.

The main treatment involves making sure the small newly formed leaves are sprayed, to prevent new leaves from becoming infested, because leaf miners prefer to lay their eggs in the smaller newer leaves.

5
Some close up pictures of the seedling outside in the ground.



I couldn't capture a close-up of both branch sides in a single picture, so had to take two pictures of each branch side of the seedling.


It seems to have put out some more leaf growth.

pictures taken June 7, 2021



6
The Keraji now has flowers on it.


The blossoms smell like a mix of the flowers of Satsuma mandarin, combined with the blossoms of a mild sweet lemon, with a little bit of honeysuckle.
I am surprised there does seem to be a little bit of distinct lemon blossom smell to it.

June 5, 2021


The Bloomsweet has also very quickly grown out a big new branch with leaves.


In case anyone is curious, I have smelled the flowers of Bloomsweet before. It doesn't smell like grapefruit blossoms, but smells much more like the blossoms of sour orange, very beautifully and potently fragrant like a perfume ingredient, with a hint of bergamot and pomelo blossom.
I think there are things that can be learned from smelling and carefully observing the smell of the flowers. One can gain inferences about the genetics of ancestry, or even gain some idea of how the fruits may be likely to taste.

7
Temperate Fruit Discussion / Re: cherries in san diego what?
« on: June 02, 2021, 03:34:28 PM »
have some trees a little further inland, maybe 10 or 20 miles south of Irvine, and they are very reluctant to fruit.
The Royal Lee have not fruited yet, even after 5 years. One of the Royal Minnie is grafted onto the top of a Bing cherry and the tree has reached a medium big size. This year I got one single cherry fruit on it, which looks like it will ripen. This is the first fruit so far that hasn't dropped. I also got a small bunch of maybe 7 cherries on another Royal Minnie tree in a container that is in mostly shade. It's base rootstock was overgrown and the suckers needed to be cut off, and the top grafted part of the cherry did not look so good; it might have only sent out fruit because it was under severe stress and dying. The cherry fruits were small and looked like not a lot of vigor went into creating them, like they began overripening before the cherries had fully matured, although the flavor was just okay.
Maybe when the trees get bigger and a colder winter than usual comes along there will be more luck.

The area is in solid zone 10 (on the border between 10a/10b).

The Royal Lee trees seems to be growing just between okay and good.

8
Temperate Fruit Buy, Sell, & Trade / Re: ISO golden kiwi vine.
« on: May 15, 2021, 03:23:52 AM »
You can grow kiwi from seeds. It's not too difficult.

I think the seeds need to be freshly taken out of a fruit though.

I grew some under artificial light, in a container covered over by clear plastic to prevent the soil from drying out.

They actually grow very fast.

The only downside is that growing by seed you have a 50% chance it will turn out to be a male or female, which still isn't too bad since you will need a male to pollinate the female to get fruit.


Supposedly golden kiwi is just a little bit less hardy than regular kiwi, but I know they can survive through a normal winter in zone 8a.

9
Ichang papeda, some of the leaves are slowly beginning to recover their green color.


Ichangquat seedling, some of the leaves are beginning to recover, which is surprising. The leaves looked so pale before. It still has not grown any new leaves.


Bloomsweet beginning to put out some solid new growth now, looks good


Keraji, on grafted rootstock, looks very good. Some sort of insects seem to have taken some bites out of some leaves.


pictures taken May 13, 2021

10
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Yuzu Ichang Papeda cross
« on: May 10, 2021, 06:05:52 PM »
I am really bad at posting pictures but believe me, I have a seedling of Ichangensis IVIA in my garden that now is in ground for round ten years. Is is 150cm high and was never protected and was never damaged from cold. Is is deeply green an looks much healthier than my poncirus which does not like the soil. It seems to be much more resistant to limestone than PT.
You say you are in Vienna, zone 7b.
Do you think you might be in a part of the city that is actually more like 8a ?
Thank you for sharing the picture and information about your Ichang papeda growing there.

I wonder why my Ichang papedas don't appear to be looking as hardy. Maybe what I have is a different cultivar of Ichang papeda that is not as hardy? Maybe something about the climate here, with its wet winters and lack of heat in the early part of the year?


One additional piece of evidence that points to Yuzu being more likely to be a hybrid is that it is always full of many seeds, and most of those seeds are nucellar, whereas Ichang papeda often seems to have almost no seeds, presumably due to not being pollinated by a different variety, and I think the seeds in Ichang papeda are zygotic.
Typically hybridization (between different species) often results in that sort of situation.

11
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Yuzu Ichang Papeda cross
« on: May 06, 2021, 07:53:39 PM »
my experience with C.ichangensis is very difficult to interpret ... But up to now I have not seen any photos of mature pure ichangensis that survived long term in the Northern part of Europe.
Just to point out, there is one picture of a C. ichangensis in Germany zone 8a here:
"Hardy citrus growing in Switzerland"
https://tropicalfruitforum.com/index.php?topic=30863.0

But it does seem to be in the middle of a residential suburban neighborhood, which may be having an effect on temperatures.

12
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Yuzu Ichang Papeda cross
« on: May 04, 2021, 06:19:22 PM »
I don't understand it. Once again, it looks like Yuzu is recovering better and more vigorously than Ichang papeda. I have two Ichang papeda plants and several Yuzu, both on rootstock and on their own roots, planted in ground, and the Yuzu are all beginning to leaf out right now, while the Ichang papeda have no new leaf buds and look rather pale and very yellow-greenish in hue, both the leaves and stems. This seems to be an indicator to me that Ichang papeda, or at least this ascension of Ichang papeda, is not as cold resistant here, although I can't really say that for sure, since this is not talking about actual survival.
This is in the Pacific Northwest climate, zone 8a.

I don't understand why Yuzu seems to be doing so much better here than Ichang papeda. All the sources say that Ichang papeda is supposed to be more hardy. (And yes, I am aware what the distinctive shape looks like of the leaves of Ichang papeda. This is Ichang papeda)

13
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Yuzu seedling growing in Washington state
« on: May 03, 2021, 07:51:53 PM »
Thanks for the note on the yuzu vs changsha. It sounds like yuzu and changsha are close in hardiness.
Yuzu is more hardy than Changsha. These are not my only Yuzu and Changsha plants. I can see it in the color of the leaves, the exposure to cold does not cause the Yuzu leaves to turn as yellowish in hue as the Changsha, which I have found is usually is a good indicator of hardiness. (Although strangely the leaves of both of my two Ichang papeda plants turn very pale and yellowish, so maybe this is not always the case)

It seems like Yuzu is not all that much more hardy than Changsha though, although I cannot say for sure based on personal experiences.

This is purely anecdotal and could be wrong but I get the feeling that Yuzu can start growing vigorously at a little bit of a lower temperature level than Changsha, although both are vigorous growing varieties. Changsha loves hot temperatures though and might take off faster than Yuzu in climates with hotter temperatures.

They both seem to recover from damage well, which may not be the case with all cold hardy varieties.

I've tasted the fruits from both, freshly picked from the tree, and while the peels of Yuzu are tender and kind of edible, the peels of Changsha are definitely not. Most people will tell you the inside of a Changsha is better eating quality than the inside of a Yuzu though. Might only be a little bit better, it is a little subjective.


Its good to know yuzu is growing outside in Seattle.
I don't know how well Yuzu would grow in Seattle. Where I am has very slightly colder average winter temperatures than Seattle, but also gets a little hotter in the summer. The plants really need that heat, due to the cool climate and shorter growing season here.

As you go only a little bit north of Seattle, there are many areas that get very little heat most of the year.

That can be difficult to imagine for people who live in the South. There are some big climate differences despite the fact that we both may live in zone 8a.

14
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: Yuzu seedling growing in Washington state
« on: May 02, 2021, 07:26:57 PM »
I planted a small Yuzu and a Changsha in the ground as an experiment to see how they would do. Both of them are only 4 inches tall, growing on their own roots. The Yuzu is a seedling and the Changsha was a rooted cutting, and so is much thicker than the Yuzu. They are right next to each other. They are in a protected location, but were not protected or covered. I can provide an update now, it appears both of them were able to survive through the winter outside.
The Yuzu lost all its leaves, and the leaves on the Changsha do not look so good, only marginally alive, it looks like maybe only one of the leaves might be able to recover. Both of them are now beginning to put out a small flush of new leaf bud growth. They both look like they are growing with about the same amount of vigor now.

15
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: New citrus tree in ground
« on: May 01, 2021, 03:49:03 PM »
In the specific case of kumquat, do you think being grafted on poncirus makes it more resistant to freeze damage?
What have your observations indicated about this?

I did read that kumquat enters and stays in dormancy much more easily than other citrus species, a protective mechanism against cold damage, so am wondering whether grafting it onto poncirus might be redundant. (Just a thought, I have no idea)

16
Citrus Buy, Sell, & Trade / Ichang papeda pollen available
« on: May 01, 2021, 03:06:04 PM »
If any of you are interested in attempting to make a cold hardy hybrid.

I'm not sure exactly when, but a large Ichang papeda tree here will soon be in bloom. This is your chance to get some pollen.

Remember, pollen tends to have a short viability time, maybe only a few days, maybe a week or two in a refrigerator. If you are interested, please give me some time estimate of when your citrus will be in bloom, so I can try to send it at the closest time.

Remember, citrus varieties that have the highest rates of zygotic seed and which are most suitable for using as the female parent in breeding include most types of mandarins, citron, kumquat, and pomelo. Regular lemons and grapefruit have lower percentages of zygotic seeds (maybe 15-30 percent) and regular oranges have very low percentages of zygotic seed and are usually not practical to use as the female parent in attempted crosses. You can ask me about the specific variety that you're thinking about using and I can try to look it up, if you're not sure.

You can private message me.
You will probably need to contact me within the next 2 or 3 weeks.

Typical Ichang papeda hybrids are likely to turn out suitable to climate zone 8b, 8a, or possibly even 7b if the female parent is something very hardy like a trifoliate hybrid. (You can give me your location if you're not sure what climate zone designation you are in)

Even if you live in a warmer climate, you could still try to develop a new hybrid that might be useful to other people who are in colder climates.
(In fact it will probably be much easier to try to breed and create a new variety if it is done in a warmer climate)

You might want to put a little label on the branch area of the tree that you attempt to pollinate, so you know which specific fruits to harvest for seeds later.

17
Citrus General Discussion / Re: Indoor citrus/fruit tree grow lights?
« on: April 30, 2021, 09:36:12 PM »
There are already several other older discussions on this topic.

Regular white 5000K LED works perfectly fine, and you are not going to get much improvement using anything else.


Red+blue LED can theoretically be more energy efficient (twice as much, if you were curious), but in the less expensive options being sold to amateur growers are actually going to be less efficient than a regular white LED bulb.

18
a small update:

The Sudachi is beginning to put out a flush of leaf growth, which is surprising because its older leaves right now look scant and not really the healthiest.

Surprisingly the little Ichangquat seedling that hasn't seemed to be doing that well, a few of its leaves are starting to green up and are still alive/functional. Those leaves have to be three years old by now. These few leaves look more green than they did last year, when the plant wasn't able to put out any leaf growth. And I think I am seeing the tiniest beginnings of little green bud growth.

I guess both of these plants appreciated the mild winter temperatures.

19
Ive lost almost all poncirus hybrids when temps reached 5 degrees F and below over several years. Also lost 10 ft tall dunstan and swingle citrumelos when temps never got above freezing, hovering at or just below 32 degrees F for a week. I lost hybrids when they just started putting out new growth in March, when we got a low of 14 degrees, and these were protected in a high tunnel with water barrels next to each tree.
From what I have observed, the amount of cold tolerance can go down if the citrus is covered in such a way that creates a greenhouse effect. The very warm daytime temperatures inside the covering then brings the citrus out of dormancy and can make even cold hardy citrus vulnerable to modest cold temperatures.
So I think it is important to describe the conditions of the covering, if that may have been creating a greenhouse effect.

20
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: hardy citrus fried
« on: April 15, 2021, 05:19:32 PM »
From the coloration now, it looks like it's died down to an inch above the soil line.

21
Well, in the video it says it "failed the flavor test" and was nasty.

I have tasted Poncirus trifoliata fruit from an apparently unordinary tree that I could manage to eat and had a flavor less worse than Poncirus hybrids I've tasted.
I do wonder what the results would be if these crosses were remade using a less bad tasting type of Poncirus.

I was told the tree was just sold as an ordinary Flying Dragon from One Green World. They must have grown it from a seedling. Everything about it appears to be just like a Flying Dragon, pretty sure no chance it could be a hybrid.
I'm now growing several seedlings from it.

A question: Shouldn't this have been posted in Cold Hardy Citrus?

22
Cold Hardy Citrus / hardy citrus fried
« on: April 12, 2021, 06:02:00 PM »
This seedling from an N1tri (poncirus x ichang papeda) hybrid was planted out in late September last year.
It's now April, and you can see that it is fried.



This is very surprising because many of my other hardy citrus look good, kept their leaves and the leaves still look green now. Varieties that should have been less hardy than this one.

This was also planted right up against the side of the house, so that should have helped too.

What I think the explanation is, this was growing under artificial light indoors before I transferred it out. The leaves had not experienced cold yet and were not adapted to it. Even though the plant had several weeks time of cold before any freeze came.

What I think this demonstrates is that plant tissues adapt to cold as they are growing. If a plant's tissues have not experienced any cold yet, those tissues will be vulnerable to cold. Even cold that never goes below freezing. And even if it is a hardy variety of citrus that otherwise should have a very high cold tolerance. Hardy citrus require a long period of time to adapt themselves to colder temperatures.

Suddenly transferring the plants from warm growing areas to outside colder areas can be problematic.

It is of course also possible that these particular seedling did not get very good genes for hardiness, since there is some randomness when one grows from a seed, but it's hard to imagine that being the case here.

zone 8a, Pacific Northwest, relatively mild winter in terms of how low temperatures dropped, maybe 22 to 24 F (-4 to -5 C ) was the lowest point.

23
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: kumquat seedlings cold hardyness
« on: April 09, 2021, 03:43:28 PM »
I heard people putting them in a basement before, I assume the air is more humid there, unfortunately our basement has no window with direct light, as as dark as hell there (perfect to grow mushrooms though xD) so I don't know if they'd survive 3 months in total darkness.
That's not important. Plants don't need light to overwinter in the garage, so long as the temperatures do not get warm enough for them to grow (typically if the temperatures do not get much above 45 F or 7 C for citrus)


24
Citrus General Discussion / Re: Wild orange in Texas (Brazos Bend)
« on: April 08, 2021, 08:11:23 PM »
If all it shows is defoliation and twig loss that would be huge.  With temps in the low teens and 20's for 3 days straight, if it survived at all, I would be amazed.  I'm about 40 miles north of this tree, but in Houston, and I lost all my grapefruits, lemons, satsumas, oranges and 1 kumquat. Only survivor in my yard was a 25 year old meiwa kumquat that looks dead, but there are little shoots coming out of the bark on the main scaffolding branches. Virtually all the dooryard citrus around here look deceased.
If all your citrus died in Houston, the cold front must have been really bad. You say even your Satsumas were killed. I did not realize the freeze had got that bad in Texas, all the way down south to Houston.

25
Cold Hardy Citrus / Re: kumquat seedlings cold hardyness
« on: April 08, 2021, 09:43:58 AM »
Seattle moved from 8a to 8b when USDA put out their 2012 growing zone map, but the heat units are the lowest of basically any 8b in the world, so citrus is tough.
Well, that may be true compared to the US Southeast, but that is a little bit of an exaggeration to say the world.

There are some islands between Vancouver Island and the city of Vancouver (the Gulf Islands in the Salish Sea) that have lower heat units.
Even Whidbey Island, just a little north of Seattle has notoriously low heat units, definitely worse than Seattle. People there complain they need cold frames to be able to grow many types of vegetables.
The west coast of Scotland has some very low heat units, in zone 9. There are some parts of Iceland on the peninsulas that are surrounded by sea that are zone 8a with heat units that are so low it is nearly impossible to even grow an apple tree out in the open.

I'm about an hour south of Seattle, and the summers here actually get as hot as they do in coastal southern California, it's just that the time period of that heat is much shorter, maybe only lasts for a month and a half, and it's a much shorter growing season for citrus, maybe only a little more than a third of the year with temperatures high enough that the citrus can put on any significant growth, and I would say nearly half the year with the citrus in a state of complete dormancy.


To my understanding, much of the increased cold tollerence in mature trees comes from their larger mass. A larger tree simply holds more heat and has thicker bark than a small one.
That is what I've seen here (or actually closer to the Portland area, to be more precise) on a large Yuzu tree that looked like a hedge. The outer layer of leaves were almost fried, but the inner ones looked like they had not been affected as much.

I would guess that the outer leaves help block the movement of air. And also the water content in the outer leaves might release some heat energy as they freeze, helping to protect the inner part of the canopy.

That is why, to try to mimic that protective process, I cover a few of my more vulnerable varieties with a paper bag covering and put bottles of water inside, up against the plant. As little protection as this actually provides, I think it provides at least some, maybe 2 or 3 degrees of temperature difference.

Wind actually does make a significant difference. Citrus will freeze much faster in wind than with no wind. Plants usually maintain a temperature that is just a little bit warmer than the air surrounding them.

Even on the coldest nights here, most of the night is only slightly below the freezing point, but then it just dips down for three or four hours, and it will not dip below 15 F for more than about half an hour (really rough approximation just for example). So I think protection from wind can be crucial.
The leaves of hardy citrus are not going to literally freeze if the air temperature is only just a little bit below the freezing point.

I don't know if this is specifically true of kumquat, however.

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