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Note: %zygotic and hardiness values are not absolute. Zygotic and nucellar seedlings are strongly influenced by the pollen donor and may be influenced by environmental variables as well. Hardiness is even more variable. Hardiness is affected by factors such as duration of the cold event, rootstock, humidity, windspeed, exposure, solar radiation, etc. Winter hardiness is also highly dependent on full dormancy and properly hardened off plant material. Periods of warmth preceding a freeze can drastically reduce cold hardiness, and less mature plant material is considerably more susceptible to damage. Lastly, the values below assume mature plants, juvenile or otherwise small plants are not as hardy. For climates, as a rule of thumb, plants the southeast USA are more prone to not being fully dormant, but freezes are generally short duration, often only a few hours, so the absolute lows that plants will survive may be several degrees colder than in other climates, whereas plants in the pacific northwest and in Europe are more likely to be properly dormant, but cold events generally last longer and night to day temperatures might not be much different. In both climates, plants can easily be killed by temperatures above their technical cold hardiness limit, in the southeast this is often due to plants not fully entering or having broken dormancy prior to a freeze, and in the PNW and Europe due to freezing temperatures lasting for extended periods of time (pretty much any edible citrus plants will be damaged or killed  by four or five days continuously below 30 F, or by three weeks of sunny 70 F weather followed by a night of 30 F).

   Variety      % zygotic    Cold hardiness      Parentage    source(s)    
   1584      10-20                     
   5*      Low?      5 10 F               
   54-1-2      High      Similar to Satsumas            Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   African Shaddock x Poncitrus      Low                     
   Benton Citrange      2           
   Bishop Citrandarin      High?      5 F      US-852         
   C-146      10-20           
   C-22 bitters      10-20           
   C-35      10-20      Less hardy than other citranges     
   C-54 Carpenter      10-20           
   C-57 Furr      10-20           
   Calamandarin            15 F     
   Calamondin      Low           
   Carrizo      0-10            Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata   
   Changsha      Low      6 - 10 F      c. reticulata,, Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   CiClem 10            10 F               
   Citron      100      Upper twenties at best     
   citrus glauca      100      15 - 20 F               
   Citrus maxima      100      25 F               
   Clementine      100      20 F               
   Clem-Yuz 2-2            8 - 10 F               
   ClemYuz 3-3            10 - 12 F      Clementine x Yuzu         
   Cleopatra mandarin      0-1            C. reticulata   
   Dancy Mandarin      Low      20 - 25 F            Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   Dimicelli      Low      5 - 10 F               
   Dunstan      Low      0F?      trifoliata × paradisi   
   Ellendale      100      20 F               
   Eremolemon      Low      13 - 20 F      c. glauca x Meyer or c. glauca x paradisii   
   Flying dragon      10 - 50      -15 F -5F      
   Freemont      37            c. reticulata   
   Glen citrangedin            10 F               
   Goutou      10-20           
   Ichange lemon      Low      15 - 20 F     
   Ichange Papeda      100      0 - 5 F      c. ichangensis         
   Ichangquat 6-7-2      100      5 F               
   Imperial      90            c. reticulata   
   Juanita Tangerine            10 F     
   Keraji      High?      6 - 15 F      c. reticulata,   
   Kinkoji      14      15 F      C. reticulata,   
   Kishu      Low      25-32 F      c. reticulata,,   
   Kuharske      10-20           
   Meiwa Kumquat      Low      10 - 15 F      c. japonica         
   Meyer Lemon      100      18 - 22 F      c. limonia x c reticulata   
   Miyagawa      Low            c. reticulata   
   Morton Citrange      Low      5 F     
   Nagami Kumquat      High            c. japonica         
   Nansho Daidai      30      5 - 10 F      c. taiwanica   
   New Zealand Grapefruit/Poorman orange      100                     
   New Zealand Lemonaid            16 F               
   Nippon Orangequat      Low      10-12 F      Meiwa kumquat x satsuma         
   Owari and similar satsumas      Low      12-15 F      c. reticulata   
   Palestine lime      Low           
   Prague Citsuma      NA      1 F     
   Procimequat      Low                     
   Rangpur lime      Low      15-20 F      c. limonia x c reticulata   
   Robinson      31      20 - 25 F      c. reticulata, Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   Rough lemon      10-20      Mid to upper twenties     
   Rusk citrange      10-20           
   Sacaton Citrumelo      50                     
   SanCitChange #10 Roundleaf            10?      Changsha x Sanford citrange   
   Sandford Curafora      Moderate      10 - 17 F      F2 Sandford Citrange         
   Seville sour orange      Low      12-15 F      c. aurantium   
   Shekwasha mandarin      10-20           
   Smooth Flat Seville      59      15 F      c. aurantium   
   Sudachi      Low      15 F     
   Sun Chu Sha mandarin      10-20           
   Sunquat            15 F      Meiwa kumquat x clementine         
   Sweet Oranges      Low      20 - 25     
   Swingle      10-20      10 F      Citrus paradisi × P. trifoliata   
   Taitri            0 - 5 F      c. taiwanica x p. trifoliata   
   Temple Tangor      100      Upper twenties at best               
   Thomasville      Low      5 - 10 F      Willits citrange x nagami kumquat         
   Thomasville citrangequant      Low      5 - 10 F     
   Trifoliate orange      10-20      -15 F     
   True grapefruits      0      20-25 F     
   True lemons      0      Upper twenties at best     
   True limes      0      Upper twenties at best     
   UFR-1      10-20           
   UFR-15      50-90           
   UFR-16      50-90           
   UFR-17      10-20           
   UFR-2      10-20           
   UFR-4      10-20           
   UFR-5      10-20           
   UFR-6      10-20            Citrus reticulata ‘Changsha’ × P. trifoliata ‘English Large’,   
   Ugli      100      Upper twenties at best               
   Umatillo      High      Upper twenties at best            Screening Citrus Hybrids for Cold Hardiness, Youg and Hearn, USDA 1972   
   US SuperSour1      100            C. grandis ‘Hirado Buntan sdlg’ × C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’   
   US SuperSour2      100            P. trifoliata × (Citrus aurantium × Citrus ichangensis)   
   US-119            15 F      (Poncirus trifoliate x Citrus paradisi)xCitrus sinensis         
   US-1279      100      More hardy than US-1281      C. reticulata ‘Changsha’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’,   
   US-1281      100            C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’   
   US-1282      100      Less hardy than US-1281      C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’,   
   US-1283      0-10            C. reticulata ‘Ninkat’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’   
   US-1284      0-10      5 F      C. reticulata ‘Ninkat’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’,   
   US-1516      30-40            C. grandis ‘African’ × P. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’   
   US-802      0-10            Citrus grandis ‘Siamese’ × P. trifoliata ‘Gotha Road’   
   US-812      10-20            C. reticulata ‘Sunki’ × P. trifoliata ‘Benecke’   
   US-852      40-70      5-10 F      Citrus reticulata ‘Changsha’ × P. trifoliata ‘English Large’   
   US-897      0-10      Less hardy than swingle      C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × P. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon',   
   US-942      0-10            C. reticulata ‘Sunki’ × P. trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’   
   Ventura lemandarin      Low?      11 F     
   Volkamer lemon      2      Poor     
   Wheeny Grapefruit      100                     
   Wilking      100      20 F               
   x-639      10-20           
   Yuzu      Low      10-15 F  ,   
   Yuzuquat            7 - 10 F      Yuzu x Nagami kumquat   

Browsing the literature, it seems the industry has started moving away from highly nucellar rootstocks, which is great news to those of us with breeding aspirations. Most of the new HLB resistant rootstocks have very high rates of zygotic seedlings, at least according to and the papers I found for the newer USDA releases.

While I haven't found specific cold hardiness data, just looking at perigee, two of the new ones, US-1279, Changsha x poncirus, and SuperSour 2, poncirus x (c. aurantium x c. ichangensis) ought to be very cold hardy. US-1279 is listed as 100% zygotic. Supersour 2 has not been determined yet, but one of the stated goals of the SuperSour program is to breed highly zygotic rootstocks, so it's likely this release will be very good for breeding as well.

And since these are USDA released rootstock plants, they should already have great disease residence, including some HLB resistance, vigor, and productivity. Assuming the hardiness is as good as it ought to be given their parents, I'm thinking these two might make great alternatives to the other poncirus and poncirus x varieties that are currently out there.

Temperate Fruit Buy, Sell, & Trade / WTB Chilean guava cuttings
« on: May 13, 2023, 11:12:53 AM »
Looking to buy some cuttings of Ugni molinea, the Chilean guava or guavaberry. If possible, not the variegated selection.

Tropical Fruit Discussion / Cashew fruit taste like sea buckthorn?
« on: April 26, 2023, 09:18:00 PM »
This will be a niche among niches, but here goes.

I had cashew fruit for the first time today. While I'm not a fan, it certainly tasted interesting. Took a while to work it out, but it was lightly tropical (vaguely passion fruit or lichee), with a kind of bruised to the point of mushy strawberry, and a weird funk that I guess is like the ends of a pineapple that's over ripe. The funk got stronger the more I had.

I couldn't really place it, or even describe it well. Then it hit me. Sea buckthorn???

It's been such a long time since I've had sea buckthorn though, so I'm not sure if my taste buds are hallucinating at this point. My question is, any of you guys and gals ever had both cashew fruit and sea buckthorn? Do they actually taste similar?

Alternatively, maybe I just had a bad one ("tastes like sea buckthorn" is not a complement to my mind...). For those who have had cashew fruit, is it good, or kinda funny in a not so nice way?

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