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Topics - Millet

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Citrus General Discussion / HLB Could Be Gone In 3 Years
« on: October 05, 2020, 04:29:11 PM »
According to a news article released by the University of California Riverside (UCR), scientists there have found a substance which may be capable of controlling citrus greening disease. The disease, also known as huanglongbing (HLB), has devastated citrus in Florida and in other regions worldwide. It also threatens California crops.

The article says the new treatment effectively kills the bacterium causing the disease with a naturally occurring molecule found in wild citrus relatives. This molecule, an antimicrobial peptide, offers numerous advantages over the antibiotics currently used to treat the disease.

Citrus greening disease
UCR geneticist Hailing Jin, who discovered the potential cure after a five-year search, explained that unlike antibiotic sprays, the peptide is stable even when used outdoors in high heat, easy to manufacture and safe for humans.

“This peptide is found in the fruit of greening-tolerant Australian finger limes, which have been consumed for hundreds of years,” Jin said. “It is much safer to use this natural plant product on agricultural crops than other synthetic chemicals.”

Currently, some growers in Florida are spraying antibiotics and pesticides in an attempt to save trees from the CLas bacterium that causes citrus greening.

“Most antibiotics are temperature sensitive, so their effects are largely reduced when applied in the hot weather,” Jin said. “By contrast, this peptide is stable even when used in 130-degree heat.”

Jin found the peptide by examining plants such as the Australian finger lime, known to possess natural tolerance for the bacteria that causes citrus greening disease. She isolated the genes that contribute to this innate immunity. One of these genes produces the peptide, which she then tested over the course of two years. Improvement was soon visible.

“You can see the bacteria drastically reduced, and the leaves appear healthy again only a few months after treatment,” Jin said.

Because the peptide only needs to be reapplied a few times per year, it is highly cost effective for growers. This peptide can also be developed into a vaccine-like solution to protect young healthy plants from infection, as it is able to induce the plant’s innate immunity to the bacteria.

The peptide can be applied by injection or foliar spray, and it moves systemically through plants and remains stable, which makes the effect of the treatment stronger.

The treatment will be further enhanced with proprietary injection technology made by Invaio Sciences. UC Riverside has entered into an exclusive, worldwide license agreement with Invaio, ensuring this new treatment goes exactly where it’s needed in plants.

“Invaio is enthusiastic to partner with UC Riverside and advance this innovative technology for combating the disease,” said Invaio Chief Science Officer Gerardo Ramos. “The prospect of addressing this previously incurable and devastating crop disease, helping agricultural communities and improving the environmental impact of production is exciting and rewarding. This is crop protection in harmony with nature.”

The need for an HLB cure is a global problem, but hits especially close to home as California produces 80 percent of all the fresh citrus in the United States, said Brian Suh, director of technology commercialization in UCR’s Office of Technology Partnerships, which helps bring university technology to market for the benefit of society through licenses, partnerships and startup companies.

“This license to Invaio opens up the opportunity for a product to get to market faster,” Suh said. “Cutting-edge research from UCR, like the peptide identified by Dr. Jin, has a tremendous amount of commercial potential and can transform the trajectory of real-world problems with these innovative solution
Citrus Industry Magazine

Citrus General Discussion / A Lesson Re-learned
« on: September 27, 2020, 05:34:28 PM »
I have a Tango mandarin growing in a 5-2-1 medium.  Some time back the tree set its first fruit, and I have been watching it develop.   Last week I noticed that  the medium was quite dry, so I watered it well.  5-2-1 is a rapid draining medium.  Two days after the watering, I notice the fruit has split its peel open.  Most probably from drinking in water faster then the peel could expand.

Citrus General Discussion / Haydite
« on: September 16, 2020, 11:39:23 AM »
This might be worth checking out for a growth medium.

Hydro Crunch  (Haydite)
Expanded Clay Growing Media Hydroponic 50 Liter 8 mm Aggregate Pebbles Pellets

Designed to retain and release moisture to plant roots as needed
Made from 100 percent natural clay for reusable, clean use
Offers optimal aeration and drainage in hydroponic systems

Citrus General Discussion / BioFlora on HLB
« on: August 17, 2020, 02:44:27 PM »

Watering schedule:  6 rotation routine (using rain water) in a ReptiBark 5-2-1 rapid draining medium.   

1. Fertilizing with Jack's 25-5-15 / TM
2. Rain water only
3. Rain water only
4. Water with Calcium Nitrate (pH 7)
5. Rain water only
6. Rain water only

Then start routine over.

Normal daily summer months temperatures 95-F +-  During June July & August.   Water every 2 or 3 days.

Citrus General Discussion / Turunji - A Citrus You Eat Like An Apple
« on: July 11, 2020, 02:27:18 PM »
Citrus medica ‘Turunji’ never ceases to amaze the gardener with its over sized fruit. Related to the Etrog, the inner white rind is deliciously sweet and can be eaten like an apple. Remember to train the plant when it’s young to develop thick branches to support the weight of the fruit. We recently picked a 7-pound fruit measuring 14" long on a two-year-old SEEDLING. I grew a Turunji years ago. Might be a fun cultivar to cross pollinate with a Finger Lime. It is a fast bloomer from seed.  I think I will order another one, just for the fun of it.  Much of this post was taken from Logee's catalog.

Citrus General Discussion / Marathon Mandarin
« on: June 28, 2020, 03:52:29 PM »
Marathon mandarin: This variety (formerly known as 1420) is a new seedless, easy-peeler that will be available to Florida’s fresh citrus growers next year. Marathon fruit are easy to peel and are completely seedless under any pollination conditions. Fruit develop good external orange color as the season progresses, are well-flavored and pleasant, and very convenient to eat because of good segment structure. Fruit are larger and firmer than Bingo, and Marathon can be harvested in most cases without the need for expensive clipping.

The name Marathon was chosen to highlight the variety’s unique attribute: an exceptional ability to hold long in good condition on the tree. In the 2015 season, fruit were mature internally by mid-August, although externally they were still green with just the beginning signs of color break. As the season progressed, the Brix went from 12.5 in mid-August up to 17.4 by mid-December. Very significantly, the acidity declined only slightly, and the fruit retained its firm texture while external color became deeper orange. The ability to store fruit for a longer time on the tree can give growers and packers greater flexibility in harvesting to optimize returns and expand the marketing window.

Marathon has been released under the UF/IFAS FAST TRACK citrus release program. An invitation to negotiate will be launched later this year by Florida Foundation Seed Producers (FFSP). Certified trees will be provided to licensed Florida citrus nurseries in early 2019 for budwood increase, and it is expected that Florida growers will be able to place tree orders in mid-late 2019.

Citrus General Discussion / New Second Flush Occurring Now
« on: June 08, 2020, 10:12:50 PM »
An Alert:.....Several days ago I noticed the beginning of a new second flush on my citrus trees.  The first day I noticed it, I happened to have a hose in my hand.  Therefore, I sprayed all the new flushes with a semi firm water spray to knock off any insects.  Tonight I went around and sprayed them with a HO solution.  This kills all the insects (mostly thrips) that love to feed on the tender growth.  At this warm time of the year if these insects are left feeding on the new growth, the leaves will become deformed in wrinkly forms, and will remain in that condition for the rest of their lives.  To insure healthy looking new growth, this should be done every 2 or 3 days until the new growth obtains some firmness to the growth.

Citrus General Discussion / Malcolm Manners
« on: June 04, 2020, 03:54:29 PM »
Many forum members know Dr. Malcolm Manners.  He has been a long time friend of the hobby citrus forums.  Here is a nice tribute to Dr Manners from the Citrus Industry News.

I have a Fukushu kumquat growing in a 10 gallon air root pruning container.   I noticed a few small branches dying back.  I thought it was not getting enough water, so I increased the amount and frequency of irrigation.  The die back continued.  Therefore, I thought it probably needed re-potting.  When I pulled the tree from the container I quickly seen that the water was channeling through the medium.  A good part of the medium remained dry even though I applied a good quantity if water.  I removed a good portion (but not all) of he old medium and replaced  with a 5-1-1 medium (5 parts Repti-Bark, 1 pert peat and 1 part popcorn sized perlite and soaked the tree for 4 hours.  Be careful with large containers and watch for signs of trouble, and take action quickly when signs warrant it.

Citrus General Discussion / Greenhouse Shade Screen
« on: May 25, 2020, 11:13:13 AM »
In the past I have used a black shade screen to reduce the heat inside the greenhouse from the summer sun.  This year I purchase a reflective silver coated shade screen  called Aluminet Bulk Shade. It is not as heavy as the black shade screen that I had been using, and is a lot easier to put on.  The one I purchased reduces the incoming light by 30 percent, by reflecting the suns rays back into the atmosphere. .  With the Aluminet Bulk Shade cloth covering, and the greenhouse's exhaust fans, the greenhouse is doing just fine keeping the greenhouse at reasonable inside temperatures..

Citrus General Discussion / Horticultural Oil For Insect Control
« on: April 30, 2020, 09:59:15 PM »
For a complete elimination of insects listed below, and for ultra safe personal protection, use a good horticultural oil.  It eliminates most all common insects that attack citrus. Can be sprayed between 32F to 90F.  Insects NEVER become immune, no matter how often or how long horticultural sprays are used.  Be sure to keep ingredients (water & oil) blended while spraying

Insects killed:
Rust mite, red spider mite, scales, white fly, thrips, mealy bug, aphids, Greasy spot, loosening of sooty mold.

Citrus General Discussion / New HLB Areas In California
« on: April 30, 2020, 04:20:03 PM »
A new finding of huanglongbing (HLB) has been reported in a residential citrus tree in the city of San Bernardino, California. This is the first confirmed find of the citrus disease in the city and follows the recent detections of several HLB-positive trees located in Colton, Montclair and Ontario.

Citrus General Discussion / USDA Allowing Chinese Citrus Into Thle USA
« on: April 23, 2020, 03:05:03 PM »
With all the problems that the USA and the Citrus industry is having, why on earth would the USDA allow China to begain selling their citrus in the USA.

The chief executives of three large U.S. citrus grower associations, estimate that the financial loss due to Chinese COVID-19 as of April 9 is over $200 million.”

Citrus General Discussion / Found This Interesting
« on: April 12, 2020, 03:23:00 PM »
The wage rate for citrus harvesters hired in Florida under the foreign workers program H-2A program, also known as the Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR), was $11.20 per hour in 2017. In comparison, Florida’s minimum wage in 2017 was $8.10 per hour.  Surprised me, as it was higher than Florida's minimum wage at that time.

Citrus General Discussion / Newest Citrus Root Stock Information
« on: April 11, 2020, 06:22:41 PM »
For those that are interested in some of the latest citrus rootstocks, including the Supersour rootstocks #1, 2 and 3.

Citrus General Discussion / Shasta Gold Mandarin
« on: March 21, 2020, 07:41:50 PM »
I purchased a Shasta Gold mandarin from Logee's greenhouse and planted it on October 18, 2019 in a 3-gallon Root maker air root pruning container.  The tree is planted in a 5-2-1 medium (5-parts Repti-bark wood chips, 2 parts peatmoss 1 part perlite).  This is a highly aerated and rapid draining medium, so I water the tree by soaking the entire container for 1 hour per week (at least at this time of year).  An hours soak allows the Repti bark to absorb up a supply bank of water for extended use by the tree. Soaking the root system for this period of time does no damage to the roots.  A citrus tree can remain submerged for two days before any root damage begins to occur.  In the 5 months since the tree has been planted, it has had one flush and one flowering.  However, the tree dropped all the small fruitlets from this initial bloom.  I expect that the next flowing should be around August.  If at that time some fruit is retain, I will allow the tree to keep one fruit.  Retaining one fruit, even on a young small tree, does not effect the trees potential growth at all.  This is because all the energy a fruit requires to produce and grow to maturity is derived only from the 3 or 4 closest leaves to the fruit, and not from the entire tree (research my Karen E. Koch U. of Florida). For container growing I find the 5-2-1 medium works very well.  An additional 5-2-1 advantage, is one does not need to worry about over watering.  I fertilize the tree with Jack's professional 25-5-15 w/micros fertilizer.   

Citrus General Discussion / My Citrus Trees Must Be Irish
« on: March 17, 2020, 01:27:22 PM »
All the leaves on my many citrus trees are shining extra brightly today with their pretty green leaves.  It must be Saint Patrick's day.

Happy sSint Patrick's day.

Citrus General Discussion / Saint Dominic Sour Orange
« on: February 01, 2020, 02:15:55 PM »
My in ground Saint Dominic Sour Orange tree is producing new flushes of growth on each and every branch tip of the entire tree.  100 percent of the tree is producing a flush.  Never seen such a complete flush on a citrus tree before

Citrus General Discussion / Seedless Eureka Lemon
« on: January 21, 2020, 10:17:42 PM »
 A seedless, or nearly seedless, Eureka lemon has been developed BY university of Florida and will be made available for both industry and dooryard soon.

Researchers have learned that HLB causes severe secondary and micronutrient deficiencies in infected trees, especially in the roots.  To compensate for these deficiencies, fertilizers need to contain the macro nutrients and especially enhanced levels of the of micronutrients, and the enhanced nutrition needs to be provided constantly year around. The most practical way for homeowners to achieve this is by using controlled release fertilizers (CFR). Several companies are now making quality enhanced CRF citrus packages with release times ranging from 2 to 12 months. For homeowners, 2 applications of a quality 6 month product, or a single application of a 12 month product should work fine.  According to the University of Florida research, this method of nutrition is working wonders for HLB infected trees.

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