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Topics - Millet

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1
Citrus General Discussion / PROBLEMS
« on: October 08, 2021, 03:45:39 PM »
After the Tropical Fruit Forum was down for several days I noticed that I had to reregister in order to place new postings.  If you can't post you will need to reregister.

3
Citrus General Discussion / CA HLB Infected Tree Update
« on: September 30, 2021, 12:09:42 PM »
Currently in California 2,402 residential citrus trees have been found infected with HLB. (Citrus Greening).

4
Citrus General Discussion / Trying A New Growth Medium
« on: September 23, 2021, 11:21:36 AM »

I am trying a new growth medium  It is made from 50 percent Turface MVP and 50 percent potting soil.  It seems to have good
drainage and aeration.  I know that Brian, a member of this forum has been using it with good results.  I believe it was first invented by Laaz.  Although I have not been using it very long, so far so good.  Most of my trees are growing in a 5-1-1 bark peat and perlite mixture with good results, it has to be watered so often that it is a hassle during the hot summer months.  As time goes by I will post how the new medium does.

5
It Depends

In CUPS Culture (Citrus Under Protective Screens)  CUPS is a screened Greenhouse Structure.

The Univ. Of Florida found that CUPS trees almost doubled in growth compared to outside.
CUPS trees growing in 25 liter containers produced 2,600 boxes of fruit  per acre.
CUPS trees growing in 35 liter containers produced even more.

Outside citrus in Florida average 200 boxes/ acre (due to HLB)

https://vscnews.com/cups-citrus-florida-grapefruit/

6
 Cultivars that appear to have commercially useful levels of HLB tolerance. The two most noteworthy cultivars are Sugar Belle and SunDragon.

7
Citrus General Discussion / HLB Help Looks Very Promising
« on: August 07, 2021, 10:06:11 PM »
The peptide by Elemental Enzymes, called Vismax peptide, is a foliar spray that causes the tree to attack the bacterial infection (HLB) as well as induces the tree to actually grow out of the disease. Vismax peptide only needs to be applied once every year in the spring as the trees flush, and it lasts through harvest. It has been proven positive in groves across Florida over four years of replicated grower trials in heavy HLB infected fields and has worked in generating more grower yield the same year over year. 

Elemental Enzymes has recently been funded by CRDF for an expansion of its label study for other common citrus diseases. The Vismax peptide product should become registered with EPA in May 2022. It will be available through their partner, Nutrien, the largest ag retailer in the U.S., once it’s approved.

8
Citrus General Discussion / Old Mystery Solved
« on: August 04, 2021, 03:21:09 PM »
How modern citrus developed, particularly the popular mandarin variety, has long been a mystery to citrus breeders. A global partnership of scientists recently unraveled a big part of the mystery by analyzing the genome sequences of 69 East Asian traditional, wild and atypical citrus varieties. One of the researchers was Fred Gmitter, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences horticulture professor at the Citrus Research and Education Center.The researchers determined that the complexity of many varieties can be traced to three previously unrecognized ancestral lineages. They discovered a new wild citrus species native to the Ryukyu islands, a chain of Japanese islands stretching southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. From one lineage, an important citrus trait arose -- apomixis, or the ability of the tree to reproduce seedlings that are genetically identical to the mother tree. The spread of this trait throughout the broad citrus family was documented. All oranges, grapefruit, lemons and most citrus rootstocks possess this characteristic.The researchers determined that apomixis was responsible in part for the creation and spread of new hybrid citrus species native to Japan in a rare evolutionary mechanism. The results provide insights into future breeding strategies that may produce more desirable and marketable commercial citrus.“It is humbling to realize that the fruit we grow and eat today is the result of millions of years of both wild evolution and domestic cultivation,” Gmitter said. “Our findings raise more questions about what other citrus hybrids are out there and what characteristics may be beneficial to us as we look to breed more disease-resistant and environmental stress-resilient varieties. Understanding the past is really a window to the future.”

9
Citrus General Discussion / Madison Citrus Nursery.
« on: July 16, 2021, 01:14:04 PM »
I just received my order of a red Grapefruit tree from Madison Citrus Nursery.  I have been in citrus for 40 years, and have purchased trees from just about most of the nurseries.  The Grapefruit tree from Madison Citrus Nursery was by far the very best tree I have ever purchased.  There are many fine nurseries that offer quality trees, all I am saying the grapefruit tree I received from Madison is the best one of all the trees I have purchased over the years.  I also seen two trees that Laaz received from them and they were just as good. 

https://madisoncitrusnursery.com/

10
Citrus General Discussion / CYAN-365
« on: July 13, 2021, 09:27:07 PM »
CYAN-365 is really making a name for itself.  In a CYAN-365 study, Hamlins yielded an additional 369 pounds per acre, more than 31 additional boxes per acre, 27% less fruit drop and 18% more fruit count. Valencias yielded 398 more pounds per acre, 54 more boxes per acre and 18.2% more fruit. The product rejuvenates the tree, speeding up the maturing process and keeping the stems healthier. The increased sugar content of the fruit is where CYAN 365 is in a class of its own.
 

11
Citrus General Discussion / CLM & Citrus Canker
« on: June 19, 2021, 06:22:41 PM »
An agriculture study that showed five times more canker lesions in young trees without CLM control than in trees with CLM control. In a mature grapefruit and lemons surveyed in July and August had an average of 79% of leaves with canker lesions directly associated with CLM damage.
To minimize the potential for fruit and foliage infection, pesticide applications need to be timed to significantly reduce CLM populations during the summer and early fall, Oswalt writes. “The primary window of opportunity to control CLM is 13 days after bud break of a new flush to 31 days after this bud break. Experience shows that this is much easier to do for the spring flush but becomes increasingly difficult as seasonal flushes continue through the growing season (summer and fall).  Taken from, UFIFAS

12
Summer spray applications of low biuret urea is designed to increase fruit size and juice without increasing yield. The time of application is important.  The treatment is designed to extend the cell division stage of fruit development to achieve an increase in fruit size.  The end of the cell division stage is characterized by maximum peel thickness; the peel thickness period is between approximately June 11 and July 26.  Low biuret urea is most effective when applied between July 1 to July 26.  Applications of low biuret urea that are too early  (May and June) increase fruit retention and thus are less effective in increasing fruit size.  It is not known whether low biuret urea applications would be effective if applied  later than the end of July. When applied in the summer at maximum peel thickness, low biuret urea is applied as a single spray targeting July 15 + or - 7 days at a rate of 50-lbs of low biuret urea  per 200 gallons of water per acre.  (.25-lb. low biuret urea/1-gallon).  All applications should be made to give GOOD ANOPY COVERAGE, much like spraying an insecticide.  For best results the solutions should be between a pH of 5.5 and 6.5. Applications should be made when the air temperature is below 80F.  Taking in consideration the potential maximum daytime temperature, applications should be make in early morning or late afternoon to early evening.

13
Citrus General Discussion / Transparent Wood Using Orange Peels
« on: May 20, 2021, 06:12:57 PM »
An extract from orange juice production is offering an eco-friendly way for developing transparent wood, an innovative structural material for building construction. Since it was first introduced in 2016, transparent wood has been developed by researchers at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. The wood lets natural light through and can store thermal energy.   
The key to making wood into a transparent composite material is to strip out its lignin, the major light-absorbing component in wood. But the empty pores left behind by the absence of lignin need to be filled with something that restores the wood's strength and allows light to permeate.
In earlier versions of the composite, researchers at KTH's Wallenberg Wood Science Centre used fossil-based polymers. Now, the researchers have successfully tested an eco-friendly alternative: limonene acrylate. “The new limonene acrylate is made from renewable citrus, such as peel waste that can be recycled from the orange juice industry," says KTH doctoral student Céline Montanari.
Unlike other transparent wood composites developed during the past five years, the material developed at KTH is intended for structural use. It shows heavy-duty mechanical performance.
All along, sustainability has been a priority for the research group, says Professor Lars Berglund, head of KTH's Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology. “Replacing the fossil-based polymers has been one of the challenges we have had in making sustainable transparent wood,” Berglund says. Environmental considerations and so-called green chemistry permeate the entire work, he says. The material is made with no solvents, and all chemicals are derived from bio-based raw materials.
The new advances could enable a yet unexplored range of applications, such as in wood nanotechnology, Berglund says. Possibilities include smart windows, wood for heat-storage, wood that has built-in lighting function – even a wooden laser.
The research team is working with Sergei Popov's photonics group at KTH to explore the nanotechnology possibilities even further.

14
Citrus General Discussion / Beneficial Insects
« on: May 18, 2021, 04:50:05 PM »
Beneficial insects were a lot more visible prior to the discovery of citrus greening disease than they are today, due to spraying. Research studies found that beneficial insects knocked down 80% to 90% of the Asian citrus psyllid population.

15
Citrus General Discussion / Citrus Fruit Size & Quantity
« on: May 18, 2021, 11:03:18 AM »
The growth of citrus fruit is attributed to cell division and cell enlargement, which increases the number and size of cells, respectively, during the first two months following the beginning of fruit set and about four to six months thereafter This period is called Stage 2.
Fruit size increases rapidly as a result of water accumulation in cells during fruit development. Therefore, adequate water supply during spring and early summer is critical to ensure uninterrupted fruit development and growth for better fruit retention. So be sue your trees are watered well.  (Citrus Magazine)

16
Citrus General Discussion / Exciting Cure For HLB
« on: May 18, 2021, 10:47:59 AM »
The naturally occurring peptide is found in HLB-tolerant citrus relatives, such as the Australian finger lime. The peptide has dual functions of inhibiting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) growth in HLB-positive trees and activating host immunity to prevent new infections. Jin said it is rare for a treatment to achieve both of these functions. According to scientist  the peptide’s corkscrew-like helix structure is able to quickly puncture the CLas bacterium, causing it to die typically within half an hour.

17
Citrus General Discussion / Interesting Article - Sap Analysis
« on: May 12, 2021, 09:48:28 AM »
Sap Analysis, can find nutrient deficiencies before symptoms even show.

https://citrusindustry.net/2021/05/12/sap-analysis-for-detecting-nutrient-levels/

18
Citrus General Discussion / May 4, 2021
« on: May 04, 2021, 12:14:43 PM »
Today, May 4, is National OJ Day.

19
Citrus General Discussion / Oak Leaves Research & HLB
« on: April 26, 2021, 05:02:04 PM »
UF research into oak lives and HLB to find what is in oak trees that apparently helps citrus cope with HLB.  .  Researchers have found that applying Oak leaves around citrus trees increased phosphorous, magnesium and potassium levels in the soil.  Further as the leaves were broken down, oil organic matter increased plus more water was trapped in the soil. Over the next two years, Hallman and his research partners at the USDA hope to identify which compounds are beneficial, where those compounds are found in the tree, which oak species hold these compounds and how much of the right compounds will control the disease. 

21
Citrus General Discussion / Endangered Bees
« on: April 16, 2021, 10:56:45 PM »
The publication  Citrus Industry. Net had an article on...An attempt to place bees under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by reclassifying them as fish has been blocked by California Judge James Arguelles.

22
Citrus General Discussion / Higher Fruit Production
« on: April 15, 2021, 01:18:11 PM »
A two year study by the University of Florida found  that citrus trees grown under 30% shade produced twice the yield of fruit than citrus trees growing under Florida's full sun.

23
Citrus General Discussion / Bonnie Childess
« on: March 29, 2021, 03:53:48 PM »
Bonnie passed away this morning. Bonnie was a professional grafter for many years.  God bless his soul.

24
Citrus General Discussion / Citrus Fruit Drop
« on: March 28, 2021, 05:31:52 PM »
According to research by Professor Vashisth of the University of Florida, insufficient water status limits fruit growth during the initial early stage of the young fruits development, immediately after flowering. This will cause fruit drop when the fruit matures. To minimize fruit drop, growers should focus on their irrigation and nutrient management practices. In particular, to prevent water stress beginning in APRIL (important). Water stress reduces the number of fruits and the eventual size of the fruit — and increases the likelihood of premature fruit drop.

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Citrus General Discussion / MOVED: I think I killed my Mangrove tree
« on: March 22, 2021, 12:14:27 PM »
This topic has been moved to Tropical Fruit Discussion

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