Author Topic: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'  (Read 17575 times)

SoCal2warm

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different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« on: October 07, 2016, 04:14:54 AM »
" Forty-nine Garcinia  species have been recorded in Malaysia (Whitemore 1973), and 30 of these species have edible fruit, of which G. mangostana  is the most important one producing round fruit with slightly flat distal ends and naturally seeded, referred commonly as "manggis". The other less common type of mangosteen, known as "Mesta", produces obovoid fruit with slightly pointed distal ends (found in Pahang and Sabah, Malaysia) have very thick mesocarp and are mostly seedless or have undeveloped seed. "

http://www.itfnet.org/contents/fruit/fruitInfo/html/trdLevel1511.html




The "mesta" variety is extremely close in appearance to the regular "manggis" mangosteen variety, at first glance a bit hard to differentiate.



also from the same previous article:

" Technically, the so-called "seeds" are not true seeds they are adventitious embryos, or hypocotyl tubercles, in as much as there has been no sexual fertilization. Because the seed does not arise from fertilization, genetic variation was thought to be almost non-existent. Since the seed arises from the cell wall of the female flower and is effectively a clone of the mother tree, the seedling has her genes intact and unchanged for generation after generation. Several experiments have been conducted taking advantage of the most current DNA and RNA analysis techniques and it turns out that there is significant variation globally amongst the different populations of the mangosteen. There is a large proportion that has essentially the same genetic make-up (genotype) but there are significant numbers that do not. "

So slightly different varieties of Mangosteen (G. mangostana ) are known to exist.

" Here’s more info on the Mangosteen we eat which is Garcinia mangostana – referred to as the Queen of Fruits. It is thought that mangosteens we eat originate from a natural hybridisation of two species Garcinia malaccensis and G. hombrioniana. It is quite surprising that the mangosteen reproduces from seeds which are not fertilised (a phenomenon called apomixis). This means that the mangosteens we eat are genetic clones of the first natural hybrids. But there are variations that occur in the mangosteen so it is plausible that the mangosteen arose from different hybridisations and not from one. One such cultivar is given the cultivar name ‘Mesta’ (so in full it would be Garcinia mangostana ‘Mesta’. You will find it in some mangosteen shops being sold as Japanese mangosteens. These have a “sharp pointed bottom” as described in the blog i eat i shoot i post. (Botanical term for such a shape – obovoid). This particular cultivar has very tiny seeds so it feels like it is seedless! "

https://lovemacritchie.wordpress.com/2015/10/01/10-amazing-plants-in-our-macritchie-forest/



" Another gem that you can find at 818 Durians is their very special “Japanese” Mangosteens. If they are available, make sure you grab a bag. These Mangosteens are easily recognized by their sharp, pointed bottoms as compared to the usual Mangosteens which are round. The flesh is crisp, sweet and tangy and amazingly, there the seeds are so small that most of them are edible! I found that you might get one seed that you would need to spit out in every Mangosteen you split open! It’s the best Mangosteens I have ever come across! "

In regular mangosteens, often some of the fleshy white segments inside of regular rind do not contain seed. These segments tend to be much smaller, but also make for a more enjoyable eating experience. In rare cases a mangosteen fruit may not contain any seed. The best Mangosteen fruits are those with the highest number of stigma lobes, which indicate the highest number of fleshy segments and the fewest seeds. The number of stigma lobes and the number of fleshy segments always match. The rare mangosteen variety 'mesta' typically only has 2 to 3 hard seeds, so the fruit is relatively seedless.

In the pictures you can see the shape of the mesta variety is a little bit oblong, compared to the regular variety, with a more pointed tip. Fruits are slightly smaller and the exterior rind a little thicker.

The mesta variety is grown in Pahang and Sabah, Malaysia.


Mangosteen may not be a true species

There is some evidence to support a theory that Mangosteen may actually be a result of a cross between two other Garcinia species. This would explain the unusual fact that Mangosteen seeds appear only to result from asexual means.

http://www.mangosteen.com/Sciencenonscienceandnonsense.htm

Mangosteen is very unusual in that it grows true from seed, 100% genetically identical, since the "seeds" are actually adventitious embryos (or hypocotyl tubercles). The species Mangosteen is olbligate agamospermous (seeds only form asexually). However, all other Garcinia species only propagate seed via sexual reproduction (having separate male and female flowers on the same plant).

You might be inclined to think therefore that all Mangosteen trees in existence would be genetically identical, but this was found not to be true. A genetic study showed that some mangosteen lineages had a small amount of genetic variation, while a small number had as much as a 22-31% variation. This suggests that the original mangosteen lineage could have been crossbred at some point with another Garcinia species, possibly resulting in hybrid lineages capable or sexual reproduction (that have now been lost) that could then have been repeatedly backcrossed with mangosteen.

Mangosteen fruit has been cultivated for at least 500 years, perhaps several thousand years, in what is today Indonesia. There is one theory that the fruit might actually have first been domesticated in Thailand, although it was not native to this range.

I will also point out that a similar situation exists for the rare Wood's Cycad, Encephalartos woodii, in which there are no surviving females of the species, although some speculate this could be evidence that Wood's Cycad might have just been a localized natural hybrid between E. natalensis and E. ferox, as it is naturally possible for the cycad to propagate clonally through offshoots.

Domesticated mangosteen is probably mostly, or entirely, descended from the wild species Garcinia Malaccensis.

The following link says researchers had previously mistook another species G. penangiana for G. malaccensis (an easy mistake to make because many of these wild species are so obscure and bear a similar resemblance) and that this error added confusion for some time as to what the true origins of mangosteen may have been.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10722-014-0097-2

It's also quite possible 'mesta' could simply just be a sport of mangosteen (i.e. a clonal mutation).


« Last Edit: October 07, 2016, 04:38:11 AM by SoCal2warm »

Tropicaliste

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #1 on: October 07, 2016, 09:58:57 AM »
Try the search function. There's quite a bit of information on here regarding this, some of which you have reposted. My seeds never sprouted unfortunately.

simon_grow

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #2 on: October 07, 2016, 11:21:01 AM »
Thanks for the information. I wish there was a cold tolerant variety that can grow here.

Simon

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #3 on: October 07, 2016, 11:21:23 AM »
nice I enjoy the read is 818 Durian a store if so where is it located?

SoCal2warm

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #4 on: October 07, 2016, 01:02:03 PM »
The store is in Singapore.

It is possible to grow Mangosteen in San Diego, near the Southern California coast, but the seedlings need to spend the first five or so years of their life inside a humid greenhouse, and after that they need to be covered with shade cloth, especially during the summer. They require constant attention to make sure they are always kept adequately watered, and it is important to choose a type of soil that retains water well. The spot where it is planted is very important, ideally up against a south-facing brick wall, in a spot it will stay warm in the winter, but also surrounded in close proximity by other plants, that will help filter out some of the sunlight and help increase the humidity level a little bit in that spot. For example, perhaps right behind and a little bit to the side of a banana plant. A nearby pool of water would probably also help. They cannot survive in full sun in this climate, but it is still important to choose a warm spot. Surrounding plants also help moderate the temperature, helping to prevent it from getting too hot or too cold.

If it's in a pot, bring it inside a greenhouse from late December until February (talking about San Diego here). Growing in a pot, the plant is more vulnerable to temperature extremes. Despite what many people often seem to think, growing in a pot is not the same as growing in the ground, the plant has a less extensive root system and therefore less access to moisture, and the soil in which the roots are growing is also more exposed to the outside air as well.

Another possible idea could be to grow Fukugi (Garcinina subelliptica), getting it to a good size, and later graft Mangosteen onto that. Fukugi is commonly grown as an ornamental in Okinawa. According to this article, the grafting success rate for mangosteen onto Fukugi was 11%, while mangosteen onto mangosteen rootstock was 68%. They say that Fukugi is not recommended as mangosteen rootstock because its grafted seedlings grew slower than seedlings with mangosteen rootstock.
http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=ID1999001088
« Last Edit: October 07, 2016, 01:38:09 PM by SoCal2warm »

JF

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #5 on: October 07, 2016, 01:59:23 PM »
Thanks for the information. I wish there was a cold tolerant variety that can grow here.

Simon

In a greenhouse never heard of a fruiting mangosten in SoCal. Not even in the 11a costal zones of Orange County

Mike T

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #6 on: October 07, 2016, 03:59:05 PM »
In past threads we have covered what the parents are, genetic diversity due to the number of hybridising events originally and the varieties. There are no seeds just vegetative 'inclusions'. Genetically there are at least 10 lines but they all look similar. Malaysian masta is the best known different mangosteen with the giant pointed borneo have the most distinctive appearance. Some of the attached scientific papers and pics from past threads illustrate this and it might be worth a search.I have a large leaf borneo which has slightly bigger fruit and much bigger leaves and it is less tolerant of full sun and periods without water.My contention was that the giant borneo was grown in a cooler area in my district and handles temps down to 4c when the classic mangosteen died off in the same area.Just the slight difference in cold tolerance could make a difference in fringe areas,

fruitlovers

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #7 on: October 07, 2016, 05:04:46 PM »
San Diego is not a fringe area for mangosteen. A fringe area would be just outside of tropical zone, like 23,24,25, 26 degrees from equator. I would consider southern Florida a fringe area. San Diego, even at its southern most is 32N of equator.
Oscar

SoCal2warm

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #8 on: November 30, 2016, 03:02:04 AM »
another picture of the 'mesta' variety copied from a book


note the pointed end tip; in the cut piece one of the edible segments has been taken out, note how small the sliver is, they are small because they do not contain a seed, so more segments can fit inside the fruit.

For anyone who has never tasted fresh mangosteen, the taste is a little bit like a mix between peach, banana, and pear, with a tiny bit of earthy musty (in a pleasant way) smell in the rind. Some people say there's just a tiny bit of wild strawberry or cherry to the flavor as well, and people compare the fragrant aroma to lychee. There's something slightly camphorous about the aroma and eating the fruit feels 'cooling'.

If a mangosteen is fresh enough, just picked off the tree, you can tear the outer shell off with your hands, it is that soft. But the shell hardens after sitting around 2 weeks in refrigeration, becoming like a piece of wood to the point that it can get a bit challenging to open it even with a good sharp serrated knife.


« Last Edit: November 30, 2016, 05:22:14 PM by SoCal2warm »

Mike T

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #9 on: November 30, 2016, 06:47:56 AM »
Doesn't look like mesta to me which are similar in shape to the standards. It looks like the Borneo pointed types which have larger fruit, fewer seeds and are more acidic.

fruitlovers

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #10 on: November 30, 2016, 04:20:03 PM »
another picture of the 'mesta' variety copied from a book


note the pointed end tip; in the cut piece one of the edible segments has been taken out, note how small the sliver is, they are small because they do not contain a seed, so more segments can fit inside the fruit

For anyone who has never tasted fresh mangosteen, the taste is a little bit like a mix between peach, banana, and pear, with a tiny bit of earthy musty (in a pleasant way) smell in the rind. Some people say there's just a tiny bit of wild strawberry or cherry to the flavor as well, and people compare the fragrant aroma to lychee. There's something slightly camphorous about the aroma and eating the fruit feels 'cooling'.

If a mangosteen is fresh enough, just picked off the tree, you can tear the outer shell off with your hands, it is that soft. But the shell hardens after sitting around 2 weeks in refrigeration, becoming like a piece of wood to the point that it can get a bit challenging to open it even with a good sharp serrated knife.
By the time the fruit hardens that much don't bother opening it because it will not be any good inside.
Oscar

SoCal2warm

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #11 on: November 30, 2016, 04:45:14 PM »
Doesn't look like mesta to me which are similar in shape to the standards. It looks like the Borneo pointed types which have larger fruit, fewer seeds and are more acidic.
Well, the caption next to the picture in the book said it was 'mesta'. I suppose the authors could have misidentified it. Mangosteens are an obscure fruit and most people do not know that much about them; confusion and misidentification is fairly common.

By the time the fruit hardens that much don't bother opening it because it will not be any good inside.
Not true. The shell can be as hard as wood and still be ok to eat inside. However, at that point it probably doesn't have long to go.
The typical mangosteen you will find imported into the U.S. (if you're lucky enough to ever see one) will have a pretty hard shell. Maybe not quite literally as hard as wood, but still just a bit difficult to open with a knife. I mean harder than the outer shell of a cantaloupe melon.
It's a small wonder that mangosteen shell can go from being so soft to so hard over such a short length of time. Fresh mangosteen shell (i.e. the pericarp) can be kind of spongy, and quirts out dark red juice that stains. This juice is astringent but is supposed to be high in antioxidants and very healthy for making a tea out of. I personally do not find the juice that astringent, and it retains a little bit of the mangosteen flavor. The pericarp also contains essential oils that supposedly can cure all sorts of skin conditions. If you get a fresh mangosteen picked right off the tree, it really is pretty effortless to pull apart the shell with your hands. If it's not that fresh, you will need a really good knife to open it, a serrated knife, because you're going to be sawing at it.

« Last Edit: November 30, 2016, 04:58:24 PM by SoCal2warm »

SoCal2warm

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #12 on: November 30, 2016, 05:09:21 PM »
I mentioned the similarity to Wood's Cycad, which does not have any surviving females left in the species.

There was a report in 1987 (Idris and Rukayah) of the existence of a male mangosteen tree, about 70 years old, growing in the Negeri Sembilan region of peninsular Malaysia. The characteristics were similar to those of the female tree but the male flowers were smaller than female flowers, and the stamens in the male flower were numerous and arranged in a mass, the filaments of the male flowers being much shorter than those of the female flowers. Later studies by Richards in 1990 suggested that this plant could have been a hybrid between mangosteen and either G. malaccensis or G. hombroniana. There can be found mangosteen trees growing wild in the forests of Kemaman, in peninsular Malaysia, though it is unclear whether they were endogenous to this region or escaped into the wild from human cultivation.

This would be of great interest to anyone thinking about trying to breed new varieties of purple mangosteen.

Something else that may be of interest, a new technique has been developed in Malaysia that can substantially speed up the growth of young mangosteen trees. Instead of taking 10-12 years to start bearing fruit, this technique allows seedlings to start bearing fruit in just five years after planting. The technique simply involves grafting three mangosteen seedlings together into a single trunk.

http://jakartaglobe.id/archive/new-technique-cuts-mangosteen-growing-time/

The traditional method used to speed up growth was to add a different rootstock (G. xanthochymus ) through inarching. In this way the young mangosteen plant still retains its original root but now it has a new more vigorous root supply. The reason why young mangosteen seedlings are so slow growing and frail is because initially all they have is a single taproot. It takes a few years for the plant to send out other roots.

Also putting mulch around the base of the tree is very important to retain moisture.
« Last Edit: November 30, 2016, 05:18:29 PM by SoCal2warm »

fruitlovers

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #13 on: November 30, 2016, 05:31:36 PM »
Doesn't look like mesta to me which are similar in shape to the standards. It looks like the Borneo pointed types which have larger fruit, fewer seeds and are more acidic.
Well, the caption next to the picture in the book said it was 'mesta'. I suppose the authors could have misidentified it. Mangosteens are an obscure fruit and most people do not know that much about them; confusion and misidentification is fairly common.

By the time the fruit hardens that much don't bother opening it because it will not be any good inside.
Not true. The shell can be as hard as wood and still be ok to eat inside. However, at that point it probably doesn't have long to go.
The typical mangosteen you will find imported into the U.S. (if you're lucky enough to ever see one) will have a pretty hard shell. Maybe not quite literally as hard as wood, but still just a bit difficult to open with a knife. I mean harder than the outer shell of a cantaloupe melon.
It's a small wonder that mangosteen shell can go from being so soft to so hard over such a short length of time. Fresh mangosteen shell (i.e. the pericarp) can be kind of spongy, and quirts out dark red juice that stains. This juice is astringent but is supposed to be high in antioxidants and very healthy for making a tea out of. I personally do not find the juice that astringent, and it retains a little bit of the mangosteen flavor. The pericarp also contains essential oils that supposedly can cure all sorts of skin conditions. If you get a fresh mangosteen picked right off the tree, it really is pretty effortless to pull apart the shell with your hands. If it's not that fresh, you will need a really good knife to open it, a serrated knife, because you're going to be sawing at it.
Have opened up many hundreds of mangosteens. By the time they are hard all the way around the fruit they are definitely bad inside. If there is some soft spot on outer rind anywhere then there is still some chance it will be good inside. Hardness of outer rind is a sign of fruit being over ripe. That is a good way to test before buying.
Oscar

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #14 on: November 30, 2016, 05:51:12 PM »
Forgive me but what is the point of all this lengthy mangosteen lectures? Also double, triple, multiple rootstock technique isn't all that new - google it up and may I suggest an actual trip to mangosteen exporting countries so you get to see for yourself how they get trees to full commercial production within 5-7 years - it's not just the multiple rootstock technique it's also the fert regime the climate etc
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Mike T

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #15 on: December 01, 2016, 04:04:00 AM »
Supposedly there are around a dozen mangosteen lines that are genetically distinct relating to natural crossing events probably all long ago. One type dominates and most others have indistinguishable fruit except maybe mesta and a few bigger fruited and pointy borneo ones that are rare,A few tree types vary a bit.
I have gone off the grafting idea a bit as all efforts here seem to be poorer for results than seedlings in the long term.I have checked many times with growers about fastest fruiting and had my ones on a rapid development track.5 years is rock bottom from a seed and 8 years for first fruiting is more typical here. Full production is a long time after that and even 15 year old trees are not at full production.

bsbullie

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #16 on: December 01, 2016, 07:55:40 AM »
With respect to fruitfully growing in fringe areas, its not just climate but soill conditions/composition which plays a key role.  See Whitman for durther details of success in South Florida.
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Mike T

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #17 on: December 01, 2016, 02:50:15 PM »
With mangosteens climate is the key limiting factor as they are tolerant of a range of soils. Southern Florida seems to be a special case with soils and would be at the very fringe or unsuitable with climate.If winter mins dropped below 10c too often or for a prolonged time it would be unsuitable.

fruitlovers

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #18 on: December 01, 2016, 05:09:02 PM »
Supposedly there are around a dozen mangosteen lines that are genetically distinct relating to natural crossing events probably all long ago. One type dominates and most others have indistinguishable fruit except maybe mesta and a few bigger fruited and pointy borneo ones that are rare,A few tree types vary a bit.
I have gone off the grafting idea a bit as all efforts here seem to be poorer for results than seedlings in the long term.I have checked many times with growers about fastest fruiting and had my ones on a rapid development track.5 years is rock bottom from a seed and 8 years for first fruiting is more typical here. Full production is a long time after that and even 15 year old trees are not at full production.
According to this report mangosteen trees in north Queensland did not reach profitability till 30 years old:
Read section called Disadvantages of this Crop.
http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/ip-14.pdf
I find that hared to believe because some of my tree are producing very well in less than 20 years.



Oscar

pineislander

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #19 on: December 01, 2016, 05:58:37 PM »
With respect to fruitfully growing in fringe areas, its not just climate but soill conditions/composition which plays a key role.  See Whitman for durther details of success in South Florida.
i only found these online from Whitman:
http://rfcarchives.org.au/Next/PeoplePlaces/Ultratropicals11-95.htm
http://www.rayner.us/our_bungalow/gardening/propagating_mangostan.htm

Any other reference would be appreciated. Given the root scarcity when young it sounds like a good candidate for the multiple seedling 'grafting' amendment of the soil including proper ph, organic matter and mycorrhizal applications.
« Last Edit: December 01, 2016, 06:00:17 PM by pineislander »

DimplesLee

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #20 on: December 03, 2016, 09:05:39 AM »
For all those wanting to get mangosteens to fruiting stage within a decade - must read:


http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/26-4/02-mangosteen-tree.pdf


There are other studies conducted by some Malaysian and even Puerto Rican agri people (conducted much more recently regarding TC'd mangosteen) - anyone else have a researchgate paid membership? I cannot make head or tails of those as there wasn't an English version - google translate just ended up giving me a headache - but I can give someone else access to my researchgate login creds (please PM me) if they can provide the rest of us with at least a decent translation - one study has a 29 page summary and the other I think 40 something pages - even just a translation of that summary would be good enough perhaps?
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arvind

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #21 on: December 28, 2016, 01:54:46 AM »
I just found out there are some albino/white mangosteen in Lombok Indonesia.I read it in two separate online news portal.I can only find one photo of the fruit from a blog selling the seedlings and another gardening blog in the third and fourth  link posted below.Is the news legitimate?.I can speak and write in Malay so i can understand Indonesia

http://peluangusaha.kontan.co.id/news/menghirup-manisnya-laba-si-manggis-putih-1
http://www.jitunews.com/read/8780/kabar-gembira-kini-ada-varian-manggis-berwarna-putih-lho
http://buahdanbibit.blogspot.my/2010/01/dijual-bibit-manggis-putih.html
http://berkebun-yuuk.blogspot.my/2009/01/manggis-putih-garcinia-mangostana.html




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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #22 on: December 28, 2016, 02:42:15 AM »
The store is in Singapore.

It is possible to grow Mangosteen in San Diego, near the Southern California coast, but the seedlings need to spend the first five or so years of their life inside a humid greenhouse, and after that they need to be covered with shade cloth, especially during the summer. They require constant attention to make sure they are always kept adequately watered, and it is important to choose a type of soil that retains water well. The spot where it is planted is very important, ideally up against a south-facing brick wall, in a spot it will stay warm in the winter, but also surrounded in close proximity by other plants, that will help filter out some of the sunlight and help increase the humidity level a little bit in that spot. For example, perhaps right behind and a little bit to the side of a banana plant. A nearby pool of water would probably also help. They cannot survive in full sun in this climate, but it is still important to choose a warm spot. Surrounding plants also help moderate the temperature, helping to prevent it from getting too hot or too cold.

If it's in a pot, bring it inside a greenhouse from late December until February (talking about San Diego here). Growing in a pot, the plant is more vulnerable to temperature extremes. Despite what many people often seem to think, growing in a pot is not the same as growing in the ground, the plant has a less extensive root system and therefore less access to moisture, and the soil in which the roots are growing is also more exposed to the outside air as well.

Another possible idea could be to grow Fukugi (Garcinina subelliptica), getting it to a good size, and later graft Mangosteen onto that. Fukugi is commonly grown as an ornamental in Okinawa. According to this article, the grafting success rate for mangosteen onto Fukugi was 11%, while mangosteen onto mangosteen rootstock was 68%. They say that Fukugi is not recommended as mangosteen rootstock because its grafted seedlings grew slower than seedlings with mangosteen rootstock.
http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=ID1999001088
What about in a root pruning container ?

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #23 on: December 28, 2016, 05:21:15 AM »
I don't believe it and the fruit in one picture is sweetleaf fruit anyway. Juvenile white fruit never colouring into maturity a bit like neoteny in animals is conceivable.The single pic given only makes it look sus and it is probably photoshopped with a darkened star.

arvind

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Re: different Mangosteen variety called 'mesta'
« Reply #24 on: December 28, 2016, 11:12:43 PM »
I don't believe it and the fruit in one picture is sweetleaf fruit anyway. Juvenile white fruit never colouring into maturity a bit like neoteny in animals is conceivable.The single pic given only makes it look sus and it is probably photoshopped with a darkened star.

Thanks.I was suspicious too.Now that i already get an answer from i guess white mangosteen does not exist.Wonder why news portal in indonesia spread such disinformation

 

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